1.The Greek worldklimal’ refers to ——–


2. The temperatureon the earths surface decrease at the rate of 6.5oC for every 1000meter.

3. EI Niño meansthe ————— in Spanish

Christ child.

4. The—————- is a metropolitian are which is significantly warmer than itssurrounding areas.

Urban heat Island

5. The——— isthe boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.


6. The equationallow-pressure belt is called a ——-

A battle of calm

7. The air inhorizontally motion is called a—–


8. The name of thelocal wind which blows over that desert is—Loo

9. The study of thescience of lightning is called ——–


II.Choose the correct answer:-

1. In the tropicalregions paddy is a major crop.

2. During ninoperiod the temperature rises rapidly once in three to eight years along thecoast of a peru and equadar.

3. The differencebetween maximum and minimum temperature of the day is called diurnalrange of temperature.

4. Barometeris an instrument used to measure the atmospheric pressure.

5. Subtropicalhigh-pressure belt is called horse latitudes.

6. In Ionospherelayer the sun’s rays is ionized.

7. Cumulus cloudsare associated with rainfall, thunder and lightning.

8. Convectional typeof rainfall is also called 4’O’ clock rainfall.

9. The average airpressure at the sea level is 1013 millibars.

10. The nimbusclouds are vertical clouds

Matchthe following

1. Global Warming— human influences

2.Thermometer —-instrument measuring temperature

3. Anemo meter —instrument showing of wind

4. Eye of thecyclone —- vaccum

5. Thunderstorms— weather factory.

IV.Write short answers:

1.Differentiates weather and climate:


Refers to thephysical state of the atmosphere within 24 hours destroyed by weather elements


Climate is commonlydefined as the weather averaged over a long period of time and over a largearea.

The standardaveraging period is 30 years

2.What are the advantages and disadvantages of meeting warm of and cold oceancurrents.


· Themeeting places of warm and cold ocean currents are the areas of major fishinggrounds.

· Becausethe conditions are suitable for the formation of dense fog and low clouds.


· Atthat same time these areas are dangerous for shipping as they are suitable forthe formation of dense fog and low clouds.

3.List the mechanisms by which the earth receives the solar radiation.

· Radiationin the atmosphere.

· Conductionoverland.

· Convectionin the water bodies.

4.What are the scales to measure Temperature?

· Celsius.

· Fahrenheit.

· Kelvin.

5.Differentiate Isobars and isohyets.


The imaginary linesjoining different places with the same pressure on a map are known as isobars.


The imaginary linesthat join different places having same amount of rainfall on a map are known asIsohyets.

6.Define ferrels law:-

· Allmoving objects including winds and oceans currents tend to get deflectedtowards right in the northern hemisphere and left in the southern hemispheredue to the rotation of the earth.

· Thischangeless principle is called the ferral1s law (or) coriollis force.

7.What are planetary winds?

· Thewinds that blow from a particular direction throughout the year are known asthe planetary winds.

8.What is lightning? How they formed?

Lightning can bedefined as the atmosphere discharge of electricity.

It is formed by themeeting of the positive and negative charges in the clouds containing ice.

9. What isweather factory?

· Thethunderstorms are Accompanied by many weather element, meteorologists referthem to as weather factory.

· Theformation of thunder Stroms ranges from 4 to 20 km.

10.Differeentite equable and extreme type of climate.


· Thecoastal areas experience the cool, wet air from the sea throughout the yearwhich modifies the weather along coast to have uniform weather both in thewinter and summer.

· Thiscondition is said to be an equable climate or maritime climate.


· Theland absorbs and loses heat quickly an empty experience warm and dry air.

· Theyare very hot in summer and very cold in winter.

· Thiscondition is said to be extreme type of climate or conditional climate.

V.Brief answers.

1.What are the factors determining weather and climate?

Explain EL nino.

The followingfactor determine weather and climate.

· Theyare latitude, altitude, ocean currents from the sea, direction of prevailingwinds.


· ELNino is one of the reasons for the failure of the monsoon.

· InSpanish EL nino means ‘The Christ child’.

· Itis formed around Christmas time and continues for a six months.

· Duringthis period, once in five or six years the temperature rises rapidly. A lowpressure system is formed along the coast of Peru and Equador.

· Itattracts winds from all directions.

· So,the trade winds become very weak over the pacific Ocean and Indian ocean.

· Thesewinds are deflected and cause a prolonged dry period in India.

· Theother effects of EL nino are experienced in other areas too.

· Theyare bush fire and drought in Australia, famine in Indonesia and forest fires inBrazil and south East Asia.

2.What are the heat zones of the earth? Explain any one of them with a neatdiagram.

· Thetemperature reduces with increasing latitude.

· Basedon this, the earth is divided into Torrid, Temperate, Frigid zones.


· Theplaces between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn.

· Itreceives vertical Sun rays all round the year.

· Sothey are hotter than the other zones.

3.What is called land breeze and sea breeze? With a Diagram.


· Duringthe night time the land becomes cooler than the adjoining of water bodies. So,there is a high pressure on the land and the low pressure on the water body.

· Hencecool dry breeze blows from the land towards the sea in the early morning.


· Duringthe daytime the land becomes warmer than the adjoining of water bodies.

· Asa result, a low pressure on the land and a high pressure on the water bodyformed.

· Thisleads to the cool wet breeze from the sea to blow towards land in the lateevening.

5.What are the types of rainfall? Explain conventional rainfall.

Rainfall isclassified into 3 types namely,

a. Convectional rainfall

b. Relief orOrographic rainfall

c. Cyclonicrainfall.


· Theequatorial regions receive vertical sunrays and hence become hot.

· Thehot air temperature reduces gradually, the air gets cooled and formed clouds.

· Whenthe clouds reach the dew points, they cause rainfall.

· Thisis known as convectional rainfall. It is known as convectional thunder andlightning.

· Usuallyit occurs around 4’o clock rainfall.

Orographicrainfall (or)Relief:

· Thewinds that below from the sea contain a lot of moisture.

· Whenthe moisture laden winds from the sea climb the hill slope the winds becomecool causing heavy rainfall in the wind- ward side.

· Thenthese winds descend on the lee ward side of the mountains and cause low to no rainfall.


· Thewarm air from the hot area is further heated and moves upward.

· Hencea low pressure area is developed and attracts air from the adjacent highpressure areas.

· Theraising air gets cooled and condensation take place.

· Thisbrings heavy rainfall in the low pressure areas. Eg. Coast of Tamil Nadu,Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

8.Writea note on Thunderstroms?

· Thunderstromsare produced by cumulonimbus clouds.

· Theyare usually of short duration. They are accompanied by lightning, thunder,strong wind guests. Heavy rain and sometimes hail.

· Thethunderstorms are accompanied by many weather elements, meteorologists referthem to as weather factories.

The formation ofthe Thunderstroms ranger from 4 to 20 km.

9. What are clouds?Explain any one of them.

· Acloud can be defined as a mass of small water droplets or ice crystals formedin the atmosphere.

· Cloudsare formed by very minute suspended water particles present in the atmosphere.

· Accordingto the shape and altitude the clouds are classified as cirrus, stratus, cumulusand nimbus.


· Theseare vertical clouds. They are thick dark on gray or black clouds.

· Theyare vertical clouds.

· Theycause continuous rainfall so they are known as storm or rain clouds.

10.What are the layers of Atmosphere? Explain any one of them with a diagram.

· Theatmosphere of the earth is divided into four major layers.

· Theyare Troposphere, stratosphere, Ionosphere, Exosphere.


· Theexosphere is the upper most layer of the atmosphere.

· Themain gases within it are the lightest gases mainly hydrogen and helium.

· Thislayer is sometimes considered a part of outer space.

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