Earth Surface – Changing face of Lithosphere

I.Choose it.

1.Oxidation processis better known as Rusting

2.Meanders areformed in the Valley course.

3.Beaches arefeatures of waves.

4.Pedestal rock isalso called as Mushroom rocks.

5.Barchan isrelated to Depositinal features.

IIFill in the Blanks:-

1. Weathering canalso be termed as gradation.

2. Two cavesapproach one another are called arch.

3. The fan shapedalluvial feative formed by a river at its lower course called as delta.

4. The governmentof India banned the tanneries around Tajmahal.

5. The fine dustdeposited by wind beyond the desert limit are called loess.

IIIMatch it:-

1.Salt crystalgrowth — Holoclasty

2.Ox-bow lakes —Plain Course

3.Spits — Depositionalfeatures by waves

4.Moraines —Glacial depositions

5.Seifs — Winddepositions.

IV.Short answers:-

1.Write a brief note on weathering.

Weathering is aprocess of disintegration or decomposition of rocks

weathering is acomplex interaction of physical, chemical and biological process that after therocks of the crust.

Weathering can beclassified into physical, chemical and biological weathering.

2.Name the Erosional landform produced by a river.

The gorges, canyonsand v-shaped valleys are formed by a river.

River also produceswaterfalls, meanders, river cliffs, valley course, delta, ox-bow lakes.

3.How are cirques formed?

The arm shaped,chair like depression formed by plucking of glacier is known as cirque.

4.Whatare longitudinal dunes?

They are longnarrow ridges of sand and cover over a hundred miles, lying parallel to the directionof the prevailing wind.

5.Define the process of Rusting.

This is the processwhere the metals present in the rocks combine with O2 and water toform oxides. These oxides make the rock weak and it consequently crumbles fromsmaller rock particles. This process is known as rusting.


1.Physical weathering and chemical weathering.

v Physicalweathering is the process that causes the disintegration of rocks into smallfragments without any chemical changes.

v Theprimary process in change physical weathering are abrasion.

v Chemicalweather in refers to decomposition of rocks or many be defined as the breakingof rocks due to the alterations and hydrolysis are the most common occurrences.

2.Mountainand plain course of rivers.

v Thiscourse starts from a mountain range. Due to steep slope and high velocity ofthe river the vertical corrosion action is predominant.

v Thework of a river is mainly deposition, building up of beds and forming extensiveflood plains. The volume of water is greatly swelled by additional tributariesthat join the main stream.

3.Valleyand continental glacier.

v TheseGlaciers are formed on the mountains.

v Theyare also called as valley or alpine lacier.

v ThePolar Regions are vastly covers of with ice.

v Thisextensive type of ice mass is called as continental glaciers.

4.Morainesand barchans.

v Morainesare made up of pieces of rocks, debris, boulders and day at the glacialvalleys.

v Furtherthey may be divided into Terminal moraines lateral moraines and medialmoraines.

v Theseare crescent moon shaped dunes. They are morning dunes since they move steadilytowards the prevailing wind directions.

5.Delta and loess.

v Whenthe rivers reaches the sea the fine materials it has not yet dropped aredeposited at its mouth, forming a fan chapped alluvial features called deltadifferent types are bird foot delta arcuate delta, cuspate delta.


1.Namethe different types of weathering and explain any one is detail.

v Weatheringcan be defined as the decomposition of rocks. Weathering is a complex reaction

v ofphysical, chemical and biological process the alter the crust of earth.

v Weatheringis classified into physical; chemical and biological weathering.

v Physicalweathering is the process of causing disintegration of rocks into smallfragments without chemical change.

v Thephysical weathering is done by the following process.

v Thermalstress

v Rocksare made up a combination of several minerals. The expansion and shrinking oftemperature various from one another.


v Themountainous areas experience frost condition and they have these types ofweathering. Sometimes the cracks found on the rocks are called with water dueto rain. It may freeze into ice during night due to very low temperature andmelts during day time.

v Thecontinuous freezing and melting of water cause the rocks to break into pieces.This type of weathering is said to be frost weathering.

Saltcrystal growth.

v Saltcrystallization, otherwise known as haloclassty, causes disintegration of rockswhen saline in rock and evaporate, leaving salt crystals behind.

2.Name the different types of land forms associated with the three course of ariver.

v Thiscourse starts from a mountain range. Due to steep slope and high velocity ofthe river, the vertical corrosionation is predominant. The gorges, canyons andV shaped valleys are formed.

v Dueto unequal resistance of hard and soft rocks traversed by the rivers the outcrop of band of hard rock may cause a jump or fall downstream leading to theformation of rapids. Similar falls of great dimension are also referred to ascataracts. When rivers plugs down in a sudden fall of some down in a sudden ofsome height, they are called waterfalls.

3.Write an essay on the Erosional process of waves.

v Themost powerful agents of marine are coastal erosion are the waves. Along thecoast waves are agents of erosion, transport and deposition.

v Generallya very steep rock face adjoining the coast forms a cliff.

v Prolongedwave attract on the base of a cliff excavated hole called caves.

v When2 caves approach one another, arch formed further erosion by wave willultimately to the total. Collapse will remain as a pillar of rock known asstack.

v Itis further erosion, it then forms stumps which are only just visible above thesea level.

4.Write an essay on depositional landform of glaciers.

v Morainesare made up of pieces of rocks, debris, bounders and clay at the glaciervalleys. Further they may be divided into terminal, lateral, medial moraines.

v Theyare deposits of day and debris and resembles like a half buried.

v Eg.The other depositional features are outwash plain and Eskers.

5.Describe about wind erosional features.

v Windis a predominant agent of denudation in arid and semi-arid regions, because ofscarce rainfall and sparse.

v Thesand particles carried by the sand strike rocks pillar made up of hard and softrock found at bottom, they are eroded faster than the hard rock found at thetop.

v Theseare isolated residual hills rising abruptly from ground level. They arecharacterized by their very steep slopes and rounded tops.

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