Social and Religious Reform Movement in the 19th Century

I. Choosethe correct answer:

1. The pioneer of the reform movementswas Raja Rammohan Roy

2. Lord William Bentinck passed an Actin 1829 to abolish Sati due to the efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy

3. Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi startedthe Arya Samaj

4. The headquarters of the RamaKrishna mission is at Belur

5. Vallalar’s devotional songs arecompiled in a volume called Thiru Arutpa

6. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the Aligarhmovement

7. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started aschool at Ghazipur

8. A great socialist reformer fromKerala is Sri Narayana Guru

II. Matchthe following

1. Herald of New Age  Raja Rammohan Roy
2. Martin Luther of Hinduism  Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi
3. New India  Mrs. Annie Besant
4. Photo Voltic Lighting System  Ramakrishna Mission
5. Vallalar Ramalinga Adigal

III.Answer the following in brief:

1. Write a note on Prarthana Samaj

A note onPrarthana Samaj

  • PrarthanaSamaj was founded in Bombay in 1867 by Dr. Atmaran Pandurang.
  • Itadvocated inter-dining, inter-caste marriage, widow re-marriage, downtroddenclasses.
  • The samajabolition of Purdha System and Child marriage.

2. What are the services rendered bythe Arya Samaj?

Theservices rendered by the Arya Samaj

  • SwamiDayananda Sarawathi founded the Arya Samaj in 1875. His original name was MulShankar.
  • His mottowas “Go back to Vedas”.
  • The AryaSamaj condemned animal sacrifice, idol worship, ritualism.
  • He startedthe “Suddhi Movement”.
  • The AryaSamaj opposed child marriage, Polygamy, Purdha system, Casteism and sati andadvocated women education, intercaste marriage and inter-dining.
  • The Samajstarted Dayananda Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools and colleges.

3. Mention the main principles of theTheosophical Society.

The mainprinciples of the Theosophical Society

  • To developthe feeling of fraternity,
  • To studyancient religions, philosophy and science,
  • To findout the laws of Nature and development of divine power in man.

4. What are the teachings of Vallalar?

Theteachings of Vallalar

  • One of theprimary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is thepersonification of mercy and knowledge.
  • The pathof compassion and mercy are the only path to God.

5. What was the aim of OutcastesWelfare Assocation? [Bahisikrit Hitkaraini Sabha]

The aim ofOutcastes Welfare Association

  • In July1924, Dr. Ambedkar founded the Bahiskrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes WelfareAssociation)
  • Aim of theSabah was to uplift the downtrodden.
  • In 1927 heled the Mahad March near Bombay, to give the untouchables the right to drawwater from the public tank.

6. Point out the impacts of Social andReligious Reform Movements in the 19th Century.

Theimpacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19thCentury.

  • To abolishsome of the evils like sati, child marriage.
  • Itpromoted education, encouraged widow remarriage, inter-caste marriages andinter-dining.
  • Itinstilled sprit of nationalism in the minds of Indians.
  • It madethe people to be proud of their culture and glory.

IV. Answerall the questions given under each caption:


[a] Whofounded Brahmo Samaj?

Raja Ram Mohan Rai.

[b] Whatwere the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy?

He learnt Arabic, Sanskrit andPersian. Later on he learnt English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.

[c] Namethe books written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

“Precepts of Jesus Christ”.

[d] Whatdid Brahmo Samaj believe?

The Brahmo Samaj believed in a“Universal religion” based on the principle of one supreme God.


[a] Whatwas the original name of Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi?

Mul Shankar.

[b] Whowas his guru?

Swami Virjanand.

[c] Whatwas his motto?

“Go back to Vedas”.

[d] Whatdid the Samaj advocate?

Women education, intercaste marriageand inter dining.


[a] Whowas the founder of the Theosophical Society?

Madame Blavatsky and an AmericanColonel Henry. S. Olcott in USA.

[b] Whywas it founded?

To preach about God and Wisdom.

[c] Whowas the President of the Society in 1893?

Mrs. Annie Besant.

[d] Whereis the headquarters of this society located?

Adyar in Chennai.


[a] Whowas Ramakrishna Paramahamsa?

He was a religious reformer (or) Hewas a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.

[b] Whofounded the Ramakrishna Mission?

Swami Vivekandanda.

[c] Whenand where was the Parliament of Religions held?

In 1893, Chicago in the USA.

[d] Whorepresented the Hindu religion at the Parliament of religions?

Swami Vivekananda.


[a] Namethe first religious movements of the Muslims.

Aligarh Movement.

[b] Whatdid Sir Syed Ahmed Khan strongly believe?

Hindu-Muslim Unity.

[c] Whatwas his greatest achievement?

The establishment of the MohammadenAnglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.

[d] Namethe newspaper published by him.



[a] Who isthe messiah of dalits and downtrodden?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[b] Whowas the first Law Minister of India?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[c] Howwas he honoured by the Government of India?

Bharath Ratna in 1990.

[d] Whydid he lead the Mahad March near Bombay?

To give the untouchables the right todraw water from the public tank against the Manusmriti publicly.

V. Answerin a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on Brahmo Samaj


  • RajaRammohan Roy founded “Atmiya Saba” (1815) which later developed into BrahmoSamaj in 1828.
  • The BrahmoSamaj believed in a “universal religion” based on one supreme god.
  • Samajcondemned idol worship, untouchability case distinctions, and the practice ofsati.
  • It wasbecause of Raja Rammohan Sati Prohibition Act, passed in 1829.
  • He alsofought against polygamy child marriage and supported intercaste marriage andwidow remarriage.
  • Heencouraged the study of English language and various superstitions,blind-faiths and the like were removed from India.
  • After thedeath of Raja Rammohan Roy, the work of the Samaj was carried by Keshab ChandraSen and Devendranath Tagore.

2. Explain the activities of theRamakrishna Mission.

Theactivities of Ramkrishna Mission cover the following areas:

  • Educationalwork, Health care, cultural activities, rural upliftment, Tribal welfare, andYouth movement.
  • TheRamakrishna Mission has its own hospitals, maternity clinics, and mobiledispensaries. It also maintains training centres for nurses.
  • Ineducational activities it has its own university, colleges, and vocationaltraining centres.
  • TheRamakrishna Mission has also involved in disaster relief operations duringfamine, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake and cyclones.
  • TheRamakrishna Mission played an important role in the installation ofPhotovoltaic (PV) lighting system in the Sundarbans.

3. “Ramalinga Adigal played aprominent role in the social and religious reform movements” – Justify

  • St.Ramalinga led to unity and solidarity of the Tamils.
  • Hecondemned the inequalities based on birth and promoted universal love andbrother-hood.
  • He foundedSathya Dharma Salai at Vandalur for feeding the poor.
  • St.Ramalinga had the view that love is the “Master key to spirituality”.
  • Vallalarshowed his mercy on plants, insects, birds and animals. This is called “JeevaKarunya”.
  • He opposedthe superstitious beliefs and rituals.
  • Heemphasized on “being vegetarian”.
  • One of theprimary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is thepersonification of mercy and knowledge.
  • In 1870,he established “Sathya Gnana Sabai”.
  • Hisdevotional songs are compiled in a volume called “Thiru Arutpa”.
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