Imperialism in India and China

I. Choosethe correct answer:

1. Germany and Italy became unifiedcountries in 1870

2. A great demand for the rawmaterials was created by


3. The policy of imperialism followed by the European countries from 1870 – 1945 was known as New imperialism

4. China was politically independentunder the Manchu rule

5. The movement of goods was speededup by the development of  Railways

6. The “Sphere of influence” wasadopted by the European countries in China

7. The English East India company wasformed in 1600

8. The French East India company wasestablished by Colbert

9. The second opium war came to end bythe Treaty of Peking

10. The policy formulated by Englandand USA for China Open door policy

11. The Mughal emperor who gavepermission to English East India Company to setup trading post at Surat Jahangir

12. The Republic of China wasestablished under Dr. Sun Yat Sen

II. Matchthe following:

1. The Carnatic wars – End ofFrench influence in India

2. Protectorate – France

3. Racial Discrimination – Africa

4. Island of Hong Kong – England

5. International colony – China

III,Answer the following briefly:

1.Define Imperialism.

  • The word imperialism derives from the Latinword “Imperium” meaning “Power”.
  • The term imperialism refers to the policy ofextending a country’s rule over the other political and economic interest ofanother nation to exploit its natural resources.

2.What is Colonialism?

  • The policy adopted by the European countriesfrom AD1492-AD1763 is known as Colonialism.
  • During this period England, France, Spain andPortugal established their colonies in the Asian and American continents.

3.Write about Military Imperialism.

USA invaded Iraq and forced it to havesort of government favorable to USA. This is called as the military imperialism

4.How do you say that the Industrial Revolution is an important cause for therise of imperialism?

  • It resulted in a great increase in production.
  • It created a great demand for raw materialsand new markets in Asia and Africa.
  • A great progress in the means of transport andcommunication.
  • The development of railways speeded up themovement of goods between colonies.

5.What do you know about economic or tariff control?

Economicor Tariff Control:-

  • The powerful nation could take over thecomplete charge of the finances of a weak and backward region, or its tariffsystem.
  • Turkey was under Ottoman Turks

6.Write a short note on Mandate system.


  • This was the last form of the new imperialism.
  • It emerged at the Paris Peace Conference(1919), at the suggestion of General Jan Smut of South Africa.
  • The League delegated its authority, to variousstates as its “mandatories”.

7.What were causes for the first opium war?

Causes forthe first opium war

  • The British grew opium in India and sold it inchina for Chinese goods and gold
  • The Chinese thought their peace was disturbedby the Europeans.
  • European was irritated by the high customduties.
  • The British, had lions share in opium trade.

8.How did China become an International Colony?

  • The U.S.A. and England formulated the OpenDoor Policy or “Me too policy”.
  • The Chinese territories were partitioned amongthe foreign powers for trade rights. Thus China became an international colony.

9.Write a note on Taiping Rebellion.

  • The Americans, the French and other foreigncountries signed similar treaties with China.
  • The Chinese rebelled against the native Manchukings and the foreigners in 1854.
  • The rebellion was known as Taiping Rebellion.

IV. Answerall the questions given under each heading:


[a] Whatbecame the fashion for the later part of the 19th century?

The later part of the nineteenthcentury saw extreme nationalistic ideals in Europe.

[b] Whatwas the “White men’s burden”?

It was “white man’s burden” tocivilize the backward and uncivilized native people of Africa and ASIA

[c] Whywere the European Nations forced to acquire new colonies?

To achieve a balance with theirneighbors and competitors.

[d] Whatpromoted the spirit of Nationalism?

Germany and Italy were unified, manynations developed pride over their race, culture and language and startedfeeling superior to other countries.


[a] Whowas the Nawab of Bengal in 1757?


[b] Whointroduced the subsidiary Alliance?

Lord Wellesley

[c] Namethe policy of Lord Dalhousie?

Doctrine of Lapse

[d] Whenwas Queen Victoria’s proclamation issued?

In 1858


[a] Whywas the trade restricted to the city of Canton and Macao?

The trade with these foreign powerswas restricted to the cities of canton and Macao from 1757 by the Chineseemperor. But the Europeans were irritated by the Chinese behavior.

[b] Whatwere the goods sold by the Chinese to the British?

Tea and coffee

[c] Namethe Chinese Empress. How was she known as?

Empress dowager, known as old Buddha.

[d] Whoformulated open door policy?

U.S.A. and England.


[a] Whatwas the result of the Sino – Japanese war?

China was defeated by Japan

[b] Namethe island ceded by China to Japan

Formosa Island

[c] Whatled to the outbreak of Boxer – Rebellion?

The empress dowager, known as oldBuddha decided to divert the public anger her. She made the Chinese youths turntheir anger towards the foreign powers which led to the outbreak of boxer


[d] Whatdid the Boxers do?

The boxer attacked the French,British, German, Japanese and U.S. settlements and all the Christians and allthe Christians in 1899.


1. What were the causes forimperialism?

Causes forthe rise of Imperialism:-


Resulted in a great increase inproduction.

It created a great demands for rawmaterials and new markets in Asia and Africa.


The sense of national security andself-sufficiency among the European political groups instigated colonialimperialism.


Germany and Italy nations developed prideover their race, culture and language and started feeling superior to othercountries.

Balance ofpower:-

European nations were forced toacquire new colonies to achieve a balance of Power.

Discoveryof New routes:-

The discovery of new sea routes promotedthe spirit of imperialism to exploit the wealth of the countries.

Growth ofPopulation:-

The population growth forced them insearch of new lands and careers abroad.

State ofAnarchy:-

There was no internationalorganization to maintain peace and security among countries. This state ofanarchy supported the colonial race.

2.Explain the techniques of imperialism.

Techniquesof Imperialism:-

Conquestand Annexation:-

  • The Spaniards, the Frenchmen and the Britishused to send soldiers to distant.
  • They overpowered the native chiefs.
  • This is the method of Conquest and Annexation.

Concessionor Franchise:-

  • An exclusive right to exploit some economicresources, in a “backward” region and it was called a concession or franchise.


  • An exclusive right to exploit economicresources with the grant of lease
  • German acquired leasehold of ShantungPeninsula in China for ninetynine years.

Sphere ofInfluence:-

  • An exclusive preferential right to exploit anddevelop a backward region economically, and to establish control over it.
  • British (southern) sphere of influence.Russian (northern) sphere of influence.


  • An indirect exercise of political control of apowerful control of a powerful nation over a weak nation through a nativepuppet ruler.
  • In 1912 France established a protectorate overMorocco.

Economicor Tariff Control:-

  • The powerful nation could take over thecomplete charge of the finances of a weak and backward region or its tariffsystem.
  • This method was called Economic or Tariffcontrol.

3.What were the effects of imperialism?

Effects ofImperialism:-


  • The powerful nations developed the transportand communication.
  • They improved medical care, education
  • They introduced new farming methods, to getincreased food production.


  • The colonies had no freedom.
  • Imperialism le to the exploitation of thenatural resources of the colonies.
  • The colonies were used as the suppliers of rawmaterials and markets for finished products.
  • The colonies plunged into poverty.
  • The policy of racial discrimination waspracticed in some colonies.

4.Describe first and second opium wars.

Firstopium war

  • The British grew opium in India and sold it inChina for Chinese goods and gold.
  • European were irritated by the high customduties.
  • The British, had lions share in opium traderesorted to war in 1839. The war was called as First Opium war.


  • The Americans, the French and other foreigncountries singed similar treaties with China.
  • The rebellion was known as Taiping Rebellion.

SecondOpium War:-

  • The foreigners demanded more ports for trade.
  • The Chinese government rejected the demand.
  • British and French bombarded and capturedCanton in 1857. It was called as the Second Opium War.
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