10th Civics

CONSUMER RIGHTS

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. A person one who gives final utility to a commodity is Consumer

2. The customer are exploited by the Traders

3. The Right to information Act was passed by the Parliament on 12th October 2005

4. World consumer day is celebrated on March 15

5. The Magna Carta of consumers COPRA

6. One of the planning schemes to create awareness among the consumers Trade fair

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. How are the customers exploited? Mention any two forms

  • The consumers are exploited by manufacturers and traders in different ways.
  • The goods being sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighed correctly.
  • The goods sold are sometimes of sub-standard quality.

2. Write a brief note on the birth of COPRA.

Birth of “COPRA”

The right to redress lead to the passing of the Consumer Protection Act(COPRA) in 1986 in India which has been defined as the Magna Carta of Consumers.

3. Write any two measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers against exploitation.

  • Providing consumer education through Women Self Help Groups.
  • Residents Welfare Associations in urban areas.
  • Generating awareness through sectoral workshops & seminars.
  • Publication and distribution of monthly magazine under the caption. “Tamil Nadu Nugarvor Kavasam”.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on the rights of consumers.

Birth of “Copra”

The right to redress lead to the passing of the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) in 1986 in India which has been defined as the Magna Carta of consumers.

Rights of Consumers

  • The consumers have the right to be protected against marketing of goods and services, which are hazardous to life and property.
  • The quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods; should be properly informed.
  • Assurance of access to goods and services at competitive price.
  • The consumer has the right to be assured of satisfactory quality and service at a fair price.
  • They seek redressal against unfair trade practices and right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances.
  • The right of Information Act was passed by the parliament on 12th Oct, 2005 to enable to access information from public bodies.

2. What are the measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers?

Measures taken by the Government of Tamil Nadu to protect the consumers.

  • Providing consumer education through Women Self Help Groups.
  • Residents Welfare Associations in Urban areas.
  • Generating awareness through sectoral workshops and seminars.
  • Publication and distribution of monthly magazine under the caption “Tamil Nadu Nugarvorkavasam”.
  • Propagating awareness through radio/Television media and short video films.

The motto of developing citizen as a “valuable consumer” in providing consumer education to general public.

10th Civics

UNITY IN DIVERSITY

I. CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. The ancient religion of our country is Vedic region

2. Recognised official languages of India 22

3. Language is the means of Communication

4. Thembavani is related to Christianity

5. Buddha Poornima is celebrated by the Buddhist

6. They play an important part in fostering unity and integration Music and dance

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. Why is India called the “Museum of human race”?

  • India has a population of more than hundred Crores made up of diverse ethnic groups, castes, religions, speaking hundreds of languages.
  • It had made it both a museum and a laboratory for the study of a man. Hence India is rightly called the “Museum of human race”.

2. Name some of the religions of India.

  • Vedic religion
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Muslim
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism
  • Sikhism

3. How do our customs, habits and heritage help to maintain unity?

The Indian heritage advocates hospitality, charity, friendship, love, unselfishness, dharma, proper conduct, humility, truth, peace, mercy, spiritual feelings, respect for parents and elders and tolerance.

This is how out customs, habits and heritage help to maintain unity.

4. What do you know about art and architecture of India?

Art and Architecture

  • India was famous for its architectural unique
  • The paintings at Ajantha and Ellora are world famous.
  • The Gandhara Art and Sculpture speaks the excellence of India’s greatness in this field.
  • Temple Architecture is the best among Indian building architecture.

5. Give a brief note on Indian Music and Dance.

Music and Dance

  • The Carnatic style and Hindustani music is loved and learned by many.
  • Bharathanatiya, Kuchipudi, Kathak,Manipur and Oddissi are some of the famous dances in India.
  • In many respects the rich and varied Indian Music and Dance play an important role in fostering unity and integration.
  •  

III. Detail:

1. Explain how do language and literature help to maintain unity in diversity.

Language

  • People of India speak different languages like Tamil, Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu and many foreign languages are spoken by its people.
  • Almost, in India about 845 languages are spoken. Out of these 22 are recognized as the official language.
  • Hindi is the national language of India.
  • English is being used as the concurrent-language.
  • Language is the means of communication, the instruments of growth, development and common brotherhood, Literature
  • The growth of Indian languages led to Indian literature to reach its zenith.
  • Languages have helped the growth of thoughts and philosophy.
  • The Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two great epics of India.
  • Bhagavad-Gita is the holy book of Hindus.
  • Thembavani written by Veeramamunivar is related to Christianity.

2. Write a paragraph on National Integration.

National Integration

  • In spite of diversity in physical features, habits, religious faiths, languages, food and dress make the people look different but the heritage of India binds them together; Humanism, brotherhood, friendship make the Indians live in unity and harmony.
  • The feeling and thought that all are the sons of Bharath, all are Indians.
  • National flag, and National anthem, United we live divided we fall safeguard National Integration.
  • This unity of India achieved through the ages right from the days of the Indus culture.
10th Civics

DEMOCRACY

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The most popular form of Government in modern days Democracy

2. Direct Democracy existed in ancient Greece

3. Telugu Desam is a Regional party

4. If two parties exist in a country, it is called Bi-party system

5. The opposition party leader will be given the status of a Cabinet Minister

6. To contest an election a person should be above the age of 25

7. The body of the elected representatives at the Central level is known as Parliament

8. The status of election commissioner is equivalent to that of the Supreme Court Judge

9. The election process in the state level is supervised by Chief Electoral Officer

10. Election Commission is situated at New Delhi

II. Answer the following in brief:

1. Give Abraham Lincoln’s definition of Democracy.

According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people”.

2. What are National Parties?

National Parties

A party recognized by the Election Commission, that secures at least six percent of the total votes in Lok Sabha election in four or more states, then it is called National Party. Eg: Congress, BJP.

3. What is a Political Party?

A political party is an organized association of people who come together on a common platform with the objective of winning political power. It is called as political parties.

4. Mention the functions of the political parties.

Functions of the Political Parties

  • Formulation of General policies.
  • Contesting elections
  • Educating the masses
  • To conduct and criticize the government
  • Playing the role of an intermediary body between the government and the people.
  • Integrative policy.

5. Write the advantages of Single Party system

Advantages of the Single Party Rule

  • During the periods of emergency could function more efficiently and quickly to set matters right.
  • Decisions could be taken quickly and Expenditure could also be controlled.
  • It promotes greater national identity.

6. Give a brief note on the functions of the Election Commission.

Functions of the Election Commission

  • It gives recognition to the political parties.
  • It allots symbol for the parties as well as independent candidates.
  • It announces the dates of election and final results.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Explain the types and importance of democracy.

Democracy can be classified into two

* Direct Democracy and

* Indirect Democracy.

Direct Democracy:-

  • People directly participate in the functioning of the government.
  • Existed in Ancient Greece and Rome.

Indirect Democracy:-

  • The representatives are duly elected by the people.
  • They form and run the government.
  • Most of the countries in the world follow indirect democracy.

Importance of Democracy:-

People have the freedom to choose their representatives.

  • It ensures treating people with dignity.
  • People are guaranteed fundamental rights like the right to life and liberty.
  • Democratic government should Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

2. Mention the types of election and explain them.

Types of Elections in India

  1. Direct Election
  2. Indirect Election
  3. By-Elections
  4. Mid-term poll

Direct Election

  • The citizens elect the representatives through votes.
  • Members of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are elected in this manner.

Indirect Elections

  • The elected representatives are the voters here.
  • The members of the Rajya Sabha, the President and Vice-President are elected in this manner.

By-Elections

  • By-Elections held when an elected candidate from a constituency dies or resigns elections will be held. Such Elections are called by-elections.

Mid-term polls

  • Parliament or the state legislatures do not function for the whole period of five years for various reasons.
  • Then they are dissolved, elections are held.
  • These elections are called the mid-term polls.

3. Explain the role of Opposition party in a democracy.

The party which gets majority seats in the Lok Sabha next to the ruling party is called the opposition party.

Role of Opposition parties

  • To check the government from becoming authoritarian.
  • The main duty of the opposition party is to criticize the policies of the government.
  • Attract the attention of the press and report their criticism of the government.
  • The opposition parties have the right to check the expenditure.
  • The criticisms of these parties make the ruling party correct its actions.
10th Civics

India and World Peace

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India is a country with an unbounded faith in Peace

2. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru’s five principles of peace are named as Pancha Sheel

3. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963

4. India brought a resolution in the UN General Assembly in favour of disarmament in 1956

5. Apartheid was abolished in 1990

6. The first Secretary General of SAARC was Ashan

II. Answer the following in brief

1. Mention the important aspects of India’s policy for promoting peace.

The important aspects of India’s policy for promoting peace

  • Promoter of world peace
  • Panchasheel
  • Dis-Armament and Nuclear Weapons
  • A Great Helper
  • Policy of Non-alignment
  • India-a dead enemy of oppression and injustice
  • A Great supporter of the UNO
  • Ending of Apartheid

2. Why is world peace an essential one?

Economic development of the nations can be achieved only through world peace.

World peace is essential not only for the economic development of India but also for all the developing countries of the world.

3. What are the five principles of the Pancha Sheel?

The five principles of the Pancha Sheel

  1. Each country should respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of others.
  2. No country should attack any other country.
  3. No one should try to interfere in the internal affairs of others.
  4. All country shall strive for equality and mutual benefit.
  5. Every country should try to follow the policy of peaceful coexistence.

4. Write a note on the policy of APARTHEID.

  • Apartheid- Policy of racial discrimination followed in South Africa.
  • The whites did not give equal rights to the native Africans.
  • India has raised this issue for the first time in the UN General Assembly in 1946.
  • Policy of Apartheid has been abolished in 1990.

5. Name the areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation.

The areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation

  • Transportation
  • Postal service
  • Tourism
  • Shipping
  • Meteorology
  • Health
  • Agriculture
  • Rural reconstruction and
  • Tele communication.

6. India has rendered whole hearted support to the UNO – Justify.

  • India has rendered whole-hearted support to the United Nations to bring World peace.
  • It tried to solve many problems by giving full support to the UNO.

III. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph about Pancha Sheel and the policy of Non-Alignment.

Pancha Sheel

India is called “A Great Peace Maker”. Jawaharlal Nehru laid these five principles known as Pancha Sheel.

  1. Each country should respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of others.
  2. No country should attack any other country.
  3. No one should try to interfere in the internal affairs of others.
  4. All country shall strive for equality and mutual benefit.
  5. Every country should try to follow the policy of peaceful coexistence.

Policy of Non-alignment

After Second World War the world was divided into two blocs the American Bloc and the Russian Bloc.

India has not joined either of these two blocs.

India tries to remove difference contributing towards the World Peace.

2. Write a short note on SAARC.

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation(SAARC)
  • India took the initiative to form SAARC to maintain regional peace.
  • SAARC, S first meeting was held at Dacca in Bangladesh on Dec 7, 1985.
  • Ashan of Bangladesh was the first Secretary General of SAARC.
  • Member countries are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Srilanka.
  • On April 3, 2007 Afghanistan became its 8th member.

The areas identified by the SAARC countries for Mutual Cooperation

  • Promoter of world peace, Panchasheel
  • Dis-Armament and Nuclear Weapons
  • A Great Helper
  • Policy of Non-alignment
  • India-a dead enemy of oppression and injustice
  • A Great supporter of the UNO

Ending of Apartheid

9th Civics

CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL ISSUES OF TAMIL NADU

I.CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:

1. Dravidan Hostel for non Brahmin students was run by Dr. Natesa Mudhaliar

2. Dr.Muttulakshmi abolished Devadasi system

3. Self respect movement was led by Periyaar.

4. First amendment to the fundamental rights for social reservation polishes to the state was brought by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

5. Panchami land Act distributes lands to Scheduled communities.

II.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. What are the inequalities of the society in Tamil Nadu.

Sudras and Panchamas were deprived education, government jobs, right to temple entry, property and usage of public paths and water sheds.

Such a system resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher classes.

2. What are the results of the Bakthi Movement?

Due to bhakthi movement the temple system became a major socio political economical factor.

The brahmins by invoking ‘Agamas’ captured the priesthood in the rich temples.

3. Write a short on justice party.

Pitty Thiyagaraja chetty and Dr. T.M. Nair organized a socio political movement popularly known as the Justice party.

4. Who condemned the Varna and caste system?

The siddhas and Ramalinga Vallalar and Vaikundaswamy in Tamil Nadu disapproved caste system.

Mahatrma Phule and Sahu Maharaj in Maharashtra, Narayana Guru in Kerala, Ayodhidasa Pandithar in Tamil Nadu condemned both varna and caste.

5. What is meant by self respect marriages?

It was started by E.V.R. He conducted a lot of self respected marriages, which means marriage without any rituals.

6. Define child labor.

Child labor means a working child who is between 6 and 15 years of age, not attending school during the day, and working under an employer or learning some trade.

III. ANSWER IN A PARAGRAPH:

1. Write some of the social issues in Tamil Nadu.

  • Social divisions exist in every country.
  • But India’s caste system is a unique one.
  • Here social status, responsibilities, social religious privileges and occupational positions have been determined by birth.
  • Large sections of manual workers have been termed as Sudras and Panchamas.
  • Such a system, resulted in exploitation of majority of people by the people of higher castes.

2. Write a note on Untouchability.

  • Untouchability in India is worse than slavery and ‘Apartheid’.
  • Until the advent of the British rule and during the British rule the untouchables were treated as out castes.
  • They were not only untouchables but also unseeable, unapproachable, and they had no right to education, to residence in general villages and towns, to use public path and watersheds, to enter temples.’
  • Even in the early 20th century Panchamas and sometimes Sudras were not allowed to use the public transport and public restaurants.
  • In Tamil Nadu Ayothiadsas Pandithar suggested conversions to Buddhism.

3. What was the government provision to child labor prevention?

  • Article 24 of the Indian constitution mentions explicitly that no child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any factory or mine.
  • At least 13 major legislative enactments for children have been made.
  • Factories Act of 1948, Mines Act of 1952 were brought in different states.
  • Free and compulsory primary education midday meal schemes are meant to reduce the child labor.

4. Write a note on Transgender in Tamil Nadu.

  • The term transgender (TG) was popularized in the 1970’s describing people who wanted to live cross gender without sex reassignment surgery.
  • Tamil Nadu became the first state in the country to recognize transgender as a separate gender and issue ration card to them.
  • Members of the Transgender community in Chennai launched the matrimonial website for their clan.
  • Trans-women by birth are not physically woman.
  • But by soul and heart, they consider themselves women.
  • Tamil Nadu is the only state in India that has given a gender status to transsexual.

5. Describe briefly about the unorganized labor.

  • The unorganized sector workers include agricultural laborers, small and marginal farmers, forest workers, fisher fold, beedi rollers, garment markers, construction workers etc.
  • Having no fixed employer and no labor protective arrangements.
  • Unorganized women labor is another social issue.
  • Attempts are being made to improve the service conditions of the domestic helps.
  • Balawadis, anganwadis are being promoted to take care of children.
9th Civics

THE STATE GOVERNMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. India consists of 28 states and 8 union territories.

2. The constitution head of the state government is chief minister.

3. The governor is appointed by president

4. The chief minister and other ministers are appointed by Governor

5. Ordinance are passed by Governor.

II.ANSWER IN BRIEF:

1. How many states and union territories in India?

There are 28 states and 7 union territories in India.

2. Which is the National capital territory?

Delhi is a national Capital territory.

3. How is council is Ministers are formed?

The council of ministers are formed by the chief minister.

They were appointed by the governor on the advice of chief minister

9th Civics

RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZEN

I CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:

1. Through the 42 amendment enumerates the fundamental duties of the citizen.

2. The fundamental rights are classified under six heads.

3. India is a secular state.

4. Article 30 of the constitution grants rights to minorities to establish education institutions.

5. Article 19 of our constitution guarantees six freedom to all citizen

II Answer in brief

1. Write a short note on fundamental Rights?

A constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights becomes indispensable for keeping the democratic spirit of the state.

2. What is the freedom of religion?

Indian constitution observes an attitude of neutrality and impartiality towards all religion.

3. What is known as directive principles?

The constitution of Indian not only defines the rights and duties of citizens, but also provides certain directives to the government so that the people are assured of a progressive welfare state. These

directives are known as the ‘Directive Principles’.

4. Write a note on ‘writ’.

‘Writ’ means an order given by the court.

Answer in brief:

1) Explain the Fundamentals Duties.

•To respect the constitution National Flag or National anthem.

•To defend the country

•To protect the sovereignty , unity and integrity of india.

•To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst people of india.

•To preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

•To safeguard public property.

•To protect and improve the natural environment.

•To develop the scientific temper and spirit of enquiry.

2 .Describe the Directive principles of state policy?

•The constitution of India not only defines the rights and duties of citizens but also provides certain directives to the government so that the people are assured of a progressive welfare state.

Directive in nature of ideals.

•Secure social, economic and political justice.

Directives shaping the policy.

•Secure uniform civil code.

•Provide free and compulsory primary education.

•Non justifiable rights of citizen right of both sexes to equal pay for equal work

9th Civics

THE UNION GOVERNMENT

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The parliament consists of two houses.

2. The prime minister is appointed by the president.

3. Lok sabha has 545 elected members.

4. Members of lok sabha are elected by direct election.

5. The upper house is known as rajya sabha.

6. The head of Indian republic and union is president.

7. Money bills cannot be introduced without the approval of president.

8. The union finance minister presents annual budget before the lok sabha.

9. The article of the constitution provides for a vice president article 63.

10. The president of India is Mr. Pranab Mukherjee.

11. The Supreme Court judge is appointed by the president.

12. Number of judges in Supreme Court is 31.

13. The Supreme Court judges retire at the age of 65.

14. Lok Adalat was introduced in 1987.

15. Head quarters of Supreme Court is in New Delhi.

II. Answer briefly:

1. What are the qualifications to become a member of the rajya sabha?

  • He or she must be a citizen of India.
  • Must not be less than 30 years of age.
  • Must possess such other qualifications may be prescribed by the parliament.
  • Must not be a member of lok sabha.
  • Must be a person with sound mind and financially solvent.
  • Must not hold any office of profit under any government.

2. How is the prime minister elected?

According to the constitution of India, the leader of the majority party or majority group in the lok sabha is appointed as prime minister.

Prime minister of India is appointed by the president of India.

3. What is a bicameral legislature?

  • Indian parliament consists of two houses called Rajya sabha and Lok sabha.
  • Since there are two houses in the parliament it is called bicameral legislature.
  • Bicameral legislature also refers to states having two houses namely the legislative assembly and legislative council. (eg. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh have legislative council) .

4. Explain the term “lok sabha”.

  • Lok sabha is the house of people.
  • Its members are directly elected by the people of India.
  • It enjoys vast powers since its members are elected directly.
  • Hence the lower house of the parliament is called the lok sabha or house of the people.

5. What is Electoral College?

  • The electoral college consist of the elected members of the both houses of the parliament, the elected members of the states and elected members of the national capital territory of Delhi and Pondicherry.

6. Who are all appointed by the president?

  • The president appoints the prime minister and other members of the council of ministers.
  • The judges of supreme courts and high courts are also appointed by him.
  • The president appoints the heads of the election commission, the attorney general chair person, members of UPSC, heads of armed forces, etc.

7. When is the emergency power declared?

  • The president is empowered to declare emergency when there is a threat to security of India by war, external rebellion or during armed rebellion. It is called national emergency. (Art. 352)
  • If a government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provision of the constitution he declares state emergency. (Art. 356)
  • If a financial stability or credit of India is threatened, financial emergency is declared. (Art. 360)

8. How is the vice president elected?

  • A person to become the vice president of India should possess all the qualifications that are required to become a president of India.
  • The vice president of India is elected by the members of the parliament.

9. What are the qualifications of the Supreme Court judge?

  • The person who could become the judge of the Supreme Court must possess the following qualification;
  • Must be a citizen of India.
  • Should have worked as a judge of a high court for at least 5 years.
  • Should have worked as an advocate of a high court for at least 10 years.

10. What is the original jurisdiction?

  • The cases which are brought directly in the first instance to the Supreme Court come under original jurisdiction. For example, the dispute between the government of India and one or more states.

11. What is judicial review?

  • The judiciary can declare a law unconstitutional.
  • This power of the judiciary is known as judicial review.
  • By judicial review, the Supreme Court can declare a law null and void when it is found against the constitution.

12. Write the function of the high court judge.

  • The two main judicial function of the high court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.
  • The high court supervises the working of all subordinate courts.
  • The state high court is empowered to issue writs and orders in the enforcement of fundamental rights and also other purposes.

13. Explain the power of the appellate.

  • The Supreme Court hears appeals against the decisions of the high court.
  • It hears appeals in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.
  • The high court produces a certificate saying the case is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

III. Answer in a paragraph:

1. What are the powers and functions of the parliament?

  • The parliament consists of two houses called rajya sabha and lok sabha.
  • So it is a bicameral legislature.
  • It has absolute control over the finances of the nation.
  • It passes the union budget.
  • It has the power to amend any provision of the Indian constitution.
  • It can impeach the highest constitutional authorities.
  • The approval of the parliament is required to continue with the emergency promulgated by the president.

2. Explain the council of ministers.

a)The number of members of the council of ministers is not specified in the constitution.

  • The ministers are classified under three ranks.
  • They are cabinet ministers, ministers of state and deputy ministers.

a) Cabinet ministers:

  • The cabinet is the policy making body of the government.
  • It is a collective body. Decisions are taken either by consensus or majority.
  • Normally the cabinet ministers are assigned important portfolios such as finance home, external affairs and railways.

b) Ministers of state:

  • They are also in the charge of ministers or departments, but they do not participate in the meetings of the cabinet, unless invited to do so.

c) Deputy Ministers:

  • They assist either the ministers of cabinet or state in the performance of the duties entrusted to them.

3. Explain the powers of the president.

  • The powers of the president can be divided into two categories namely
  • Power in normal times and
  • Emergency powers.
  • In normal times, the president enjoys
  • Executive powers,
  • Legislative powers,
  • Financial powers,
  • Judicial powers,
  • Military powers and
  • Diplomatic powers.

(a) Executive powers

  • Laws passed by the parliament are promulgated with the president’s assent.
  • The president is authorized to make appointments.
  • The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces.

(b) Legislative powers

  • The president can summon, prorogue both the houses of parliament.
  • Lok sabha can be dissolved by him.
  • Inaugural address is given by him.
  • The combined sessions of the parliament will be addressed by him.

(c) Judicial powers

  • The president is not answerable to any court of law.
  • He can pardon or remit or suspend a sentence of punishment even by the court, a martial or death
  • sentences passed by a court.

(d) Financial powers

  • The constitution empowers the president to have control over the finances of the state.
  • Annual budget is presented with his approval, by the finance minister.
  • Contingency fund is at the disposal of the president.

(e) Emergency powers

  • The president is given the power to declare
  • national emergency
  • state emergency
  • financial emergency.

4. What are the functions of the vice president?

  • The vice president of India occupies the 2nd highest office in country.
  • No specific functions are attached to the office of the vice president.
  • The normal function of the vice president is to act as the ex-officio chairperson of rajya sabha.
  • If there occurs any vacancy in the office of the president due to death, resignation, removal or otherwise, the vice president acts as he president until a new president is elected.

5. Explain the powers and the functions of the Supreme Court?

a) Judicial functions:

  • The Supreme Court is the guardian of the constitution.
  • The two main judicial functions of the Supreme Court are original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction.

b) Original jurisdiction:

  • The cases which are brought directly in the first instance to the supreme court under original
  • jurisdiction.
  • The writs issued by the Supreme Court to enforce the fundamental rights are the
  • Habeas corpus,
  • Mandamus,
  • Prohibition,
  • Certiorari,
  • Quo -warranto.

c) Appellate jurisdiction:

  • The supreme courts hear appeals against the decision of the high court in civil, criminal and constitutional cases.
  • The high court certifies the case whether it is fit to appeal in the Supreme Court.

d) Administrative functions:

  • There is a chain of codes of different types to provide justice.
  • There are at present 24 high courts.
  • Below the high courts, there are the subordinate courts of different categories.

e) Judicial review:

  • Judicial review gives the power to the Supreme Court to declare a law as unconstitutional.
  • By this power the Supreme Court can declare a law null or void if it is found against the constitution.
  • Hence the Supreme Court is known as the guardian of the constitution.

6. Explain the role of high court judges?

  • As per the article 214 of the constitution, there shall be a high court in each state.
  • There may be a common high court for two or more states or union territory.
  • It consists of chief justice and other judges.
  • The high court enjoys original and appellate jurisdiction as the Supreme Court does.
  • The other courts have to follow the rules and regulations framed by the high court.
  • There is a bench of Chennai high court functioning in Madurai.
8th Civics

SOCIO – ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

I. Choose the correct answer:-

1. National education policy was introduced in _______________.

a) 1968            b) 1986            c) 1996

Ans : a) 1968

2. The first Five year plan was ____________ oriented

a) Industry       b) Technology   c) Agriculture

Ans : c) Agriculture

3. World Literary Day is celebrated on ____________.

a) 8th September b) 2nd October  c) 15th July

Ans : a) 8th September

4. ____________ was abolished by the Act of 1829.

a) Infanticide   b) Child marriage   c) Sati

Ans : c) Sati

5. The National Literary Mission game importance to ___________.

a) Primary education b) Adult education c)Vocational Education

Ans : a) Primary Education

6. The child Labour policy was formulated in the year ___________.

a) 1951            b) 1987            c) 1995

Ans : b) 1987

7. The India supports ___________ percent of the world population

a) 10.48           b) 26.13           c) 16.84

Ans : c) 16.84

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. University education commission stressed the use ____________ as the medium of

Ans : instruction.

Ans : Mother tongue.

2. _____________ declared the year 1990 as the international Literacy year.

Ans : UNO

3. The Child Labour Act 1986 bans the employment of a child in ___________ and

__________.

Ans : Factories, mines

4. Widow Remarriage Act was enacted in _____________.

Ans : 1856

III. Match the following:

1. Sarada Act  a) 1992
2. Equal Remuneration  b) 1976
3. Black board operation  c) Mrs. Indira Gandhi
4. 20 Point programme  d) 1930

Ans : 1 – D, 2 – B, 3 – A, 4 – C.

1. M.L.L  a) 1951
2. Dowry prohibition Act  b) 1961
3. Plantation Labour Act  c) 1991
4. Abolition of bonded labour  d) 1990
5. International Literary year  e) 1976

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – B, 3 – A, 4 – C, 5 – D

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What is Illiteracy?

i) Illiteracy means the inability to read and write.

ii) Illiteracy leads to ignorance

iii) Illiteracy is a hurdle in the progress and prosperity of a nation.

2. Mention some of the measures taken by the Government to improve the status of the women.

i) Practice of Sati was abolished by the Act of 1829.

ii) The widow Re-marriage Act was passed in 1856.

iii) Child marriage was banned by the Sarada Act in 1929 thanks to the efforts of Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy.

iv) The Hindu succession Act of 1956, provides the daughters equal rights to share the property of the parents.

v) The Dowry prohibition Act was passed in 1961. It declared demanding dowry is punishable.

3. Define “Poverty”

i) Poverty has been defined in a number of ways. The world Bank (1990) has defined

poverty as “the unability to attain a minimal standard of loving”.

ii) Poverty is a social problem in which a section of the society is un able to fulfill

their basic needs like, food, clothing and shelter.

4. What are he measures undertaking by own Government to solve the Problem of

Unemployment?

i) In 1980 the National Rural employment programme (NREP) was introduced.

ii) It generated more jobs to the people.

V. Detail:

1. Explain the Social problem that our country has been facing, since independence.

Illiteracy, Child labour and injustice to women are the important social problems that our country is facing.

Illiteracy:

i) Illiteracy means the inability to read and write.

ii) Illiteracy leads to ignorance.

iii) It leads to Socio economic development of a country.

Child Labour:

i) In India Child labour is a social problem.

ii) Labourers below the age of 14 are called child labourers.

iii) Child labour is the result of Poverty, malnutrition and illiteracy.

Injustice against women:

i) Women are not treated equally on par with men in our society.

ii) Male chaurinism, Practice of Sati, widow whood, female infancticide, dowry

system and denial of education are some of the injustices to women.

2. What are the causes for population explosion? Explain the steps taken by the government to overcome it.

Causes for population

i) High birth rate and low death rate.

ii) Low death rate of due to advancement of medical science and technology.

iii) Epidemic diseases have been eradicated.

iv) The infant mortality rate has decline.

v) Desire to have a male child.

Steps taken to control population growth:

i) Family planning

ii) Increase in female literacy rate and education.

iii) Legal steps to check early marriages and polygamy etc.,

8th Civics

NATIONAL INTEGRATION

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The number of official language in India is ___________.

a) 15                b) 18                c) 22

Ans : c) 22

2. The national language of India is _________.

a) English         b) Tamil           c) Hindi

Ans : c) Hindi

3. In India, the states are divided on the basis of ___________.

a) language      b) literature      c) heritage

Ans : a) language

4. The national integration Day is observed on __________.

a) 14th Nov      b) 19th Nov      c) 1st Nov

Ans : b) 19th Nov

5. Who among the following settled in India during the early days.

a) The Greeks b) The Aryans c) The persions

Ans : b) The Aryans

6. Jains celebrate _____________.

a) Mahavir Jayanthi     b) Krishna Jayanthi      c) Bakrid

Ans : Mahavir Jayanthi

7. Valmiki wrote ________________ in sanskrit

a) Mahabharata                        b) Shakunthala                         c) Ramayana

Ans : C) Ramayana

8. In India almost about __________ languages are spoken

a) 645              b) 745              c) 845

Ans : c) 845

9. Arunachaleswara temple is at

a) Madurai       b) Thiruvannamalai     c) Tanjore

Ans : b) Thiruvannamalai

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. India is also known as ____________.

Ans : Bharat.

2. Cave Temples are at _____________.

Ans : Mamallapuram.

3. Social structure of India is based upon ___________.

Ans : Caste.

4. The Buddhish celebrate _____________.

Ans ; Buddha poornima.

5. ___________ has been declared as an official link language.

Ans : English

6. India is a treasure house of _______________.

Ans : literature

7. Painting at ___________ and ____________ ae world famous.

Ans : Ajantha and Elora

8. All Indians celebrate the ____________

Ans : New year day

9. The ____________ and ____________ of music originated in India.

Ans : Carnatic style, Hindustani Style

III. Match the following:

1. Kalidasa  (a) The Holy Book
2. The Bible  (b) Jain Temple
3. Mount Abu  (c) Amritsar
4. Golden Temple  (d) Megadoothan

Ans : 1-(d) 2-(a) 3-(b) 4-(c)

1. Kalidasa  a) Kanchipuram
2. Kuchipudi  b) Christians
3. Vaikunta Perumal  c) Dance
4. Cathedral  d) Shakunthala
5. Easter  e) Santhome

Ans : 1 – D, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – E, 5 – B

VI. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. Define culture?

(i) Culture is a product of corporate civil society.

(ii) Culture may also be defined as the activities of man individually and in Society.

2. Mention Some of the festivals of the Hindus?

Deepavali, Rama Navami, Krishna Jayanthi, Durga Pooja and Makara Sankaranthi (Pongal) are some of the festival of Hindus.

3. Name some temples in South India.

i) In South India, meenakshi temple at madurai, the Brihadeeswara the Kailasanathar temple and Vaikunta perumal temple at Kanchipuram are famous temple.

ii) The Arunachaleswara temple at Thiruvannamalai, Temple at vellore and Chidambaram, the cathedral at santhom are also famous ones.

4. Point out the factors affecting national integration.

i) Communication

ii) Linguism

iii) Casteism

iv) Economic disparity

V. Detail:

1. Detail is a land of “Unity in Diversity” explain.

Language

i) In India almost about 845 languages are spoken now of these 22 are constitutionally recognized languages.

ii) Hindi has been chosen as the National language.

iii) English has been declared as an official link language.

Literature

i) India is a treasure house of literature.

ii) The Vedas, Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Bhagavad Gita, the Bible, Quran, Thirukkural are familiar with all Indians.

iii) In Tamil, the eight Anthalogies, the Ten Idylls, Eighteen Didactis (18), Aimperum

kappiyangal, the Periyapuranam nalavenba, Kalingathuparani, Thevaram and

naalayira Divya Prabandam describe historical events and also enrich the language.

Festivals:

i) Hindu festivals like Deepavali, Krishna jayanthi, Durga pooja (Navarathiri) Pongal etc.,

ii) Muslim celebrate Bakrid and Ramzan.

iii) Christians celebrate easter and Christmas.

Customs, Habits and Heritage

i) The Indian heritage advocates hospitality, Charity, brotherhood, love, dharma, tolerance, peace, Spiritual feelings and respect for elders.

ii) All the good habits help the Indians to line in Unity.

Food and Dress

i) In South India people eat rice, where as in North India people prefer wheat and dhal.

ii) The climatic condition of India differ from place to place.

Music and Dance

i) The Carnatic style and Hindustani style of music originated India.

ii) Bharathanatyam, Kuchipudi, kathak, Manipuri and oddissi are some of the famous dances in India.

Unity in Diversity

i) The Indian people are different in their food habits, dress, caste, creed, religion and language.

ii) They also line under different environment.

iii) Inspite of all these differences they are called by one name as “Indians”.

2. Explain the factors that load to National Integration.

i) In spite of many diversities we are called Indians.

ii) Everyone feels that he / she is an Indian first, it promotes our National Integration.

There are other factors, which promote our National Integration.

They are

i) India’s geographical feature and its defence, cultural heritage and cultural unity and religions tolerance promote National Integration.

ii) Our National symbols, National Flag and National Anthem the principles of

Democracy, Sovereignty, Secularism and Socialism promote National Integration.

iii) The observance of National Integration Day on 19th November every year strengthens the idea of national Integration.