8th History


I. Choose the correct answer

1. The Vellore mutiny took place in the year

a) 1806 b) 1807 c) 1808

2. The Sepoys were influenced by ____________

a) English officers b) Tipus family c) Robert cline

3. The Governor of Madras presidency at the time of Vellore sepoy mutiny was_____________

a) William Bentinck b) Cornwallis c) Robert clive

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Indian Sepoys refused to wear the ___________ which led to the Mutiny.

2. ___________ was outside the fort when the mutiny started.

3. The mutiny was suppressed by _____________.

III. Match the following

1. Tipu’s son  a) Turban
2. Agnew  b) Mutineers
3. Sepoys  c) Bentinck
4. Governor of Madras  d) Fatch Hyder

IV. Answer the following

1. When and where did the Mutiny started?

Vellore in 1806

2. Why did the Sepoys of Vellore revolt?

i) The strict discipline, new weapons, new methods and changes in dress code introduced by the British created resentment among the sepoys.

ii) Hindus were Prohibited from wearing ornaments like earnings and caste marks on their forehead.

3. What was the immediate cause for the revolt?

i) General Agnew introduced a new turban called Agnew Turban.

ii) The Turban resembled the European hat.

iii) It bore different colours affixed by a bodge with the symbol of the cross on it.

4. Mention the results of the revolt?

i) Many Indian soldiers were arrested and imprisonment.

ii) Tipu’s family was taken to Calcutta. They were kept in Prison for more than six years.

iii) The mutiny revealed the Patriotic and revengeful attitude of the Indians towards the British.

5. Why was it called Vellore Mutiny?

The mutiny was called led by the sepoy of Vellore Mutiny Fort. So it was called the Vellore Mutiny.

6. Mention some of the names of rebel leaders?

Pulithevan, Kattabomman and Marudhu brothers.

V. Detail

1. What were the causes for Vellore Mutiny?

i) The mutineers were influenced by the family of Tipu Sultan. They were confined to the Vellore fort after the death of Tipu Sultan.

ii) The recruitment of a large number of Indians in the army created suspicion in the minds of the Indian people.

iii) Most of the Sepoys were from the Palayams after the death of their great leaders like Pulithavan, Kattabomman and Marudhu Pandiyar. It left deep scar in the hearts of the rebels.

iv) The sepoys were form both Tamil and Kanada speaking regions and they exchanged betel leaf in order to find themselves together for the attainment of a common goat.

v) The strict discipline, new weapons new methods and changes in dress code introduced by the British created a resentment among the sepoys.

vi) Hindus were prohibited from wearing oranaments like earring and caste marks on their forehead.

Vii) Those sepoys who refused to wear the Turban were punished by 500-900 lashes and they were also terminated form the service.

2. Trace the course of the mutiny. Why did the mutiny fail?

Course of the mutiny

i) The mutiny was instigated by the sons of Tipu Sultan.

ii) They secretly planned the revolt.

iii) On july 9th 1806, Tipu’s daughter’s wedding celebrations were going on inside the fort.

iv) The Sepoys gathered there to attend the function.

v) They proclaimed his son Hyder as the king.

Causes of the failure of the mutiny

i) There was no proper leadership

ii) The revolt was not well organized

iii) The sepoys could not get support and supplies on time from the native rules.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Ekoji was the son of ____________

a) Shaji Bhonsle           b) Shivaji         c) Shambaji

2. Saraswathy Mahal was established by _____________

a) Viswanatha Nayak b) Thirumalai Nayak c) Safoji-II

3. Panchalamkuruchi was ruled by____________

a) Safoji-II                   b) Jethupathy   c) Kattabomman

4. Vira Pandya kattabomman was hanged at_________

a) Sivaganga                b) Kayatharu    c) Kalaiyar Koil

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Dalhousie annexed Tanjavur by applying _____________.

2. Tuljaji patronized the great Telugu poet __________.

3. Vira Pandya kattabomman was humiliated by the British collector_________.

4. In the year ______________ kattabomman was hanged.

5. Shivaji led expedition against ____________ region.

6. _________ was harsh towards Christians.

7. The Maratha rule in Thanjavur came to an end is ____________.

8. Marudhu Pandian was hanged to death in _____________.

5. Umathurai was impaled at _____________.

III. Match the following

1. Baskara Dikshit – a) British collector of Ramnad

2. Jackson – b) 1801

3. South Indian Rebellion- c) British commander

4. Bannerman – d) patronized by the Marathas of Thanjavur

IV. Answer in one word:

1. Who established the Marathas rule in Thanjavur?

Ans : Venkoji

2. Why was called Andhra Kalidasa?

Ans : Aluri Kuppanna

3. Which was the capital of Katabomman?

Ans – Panchalamkuruchi

4. When did Vira Pandya kattabomman come to power?

Ans : A.D 1790

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Write a note on Shaji-II?

i) Shaji-II was the son of venkaji

ii) He was a brilliant and bale ruler.

iii) He was a great patron of scholars

2. Give a brief account on Serfoji-II?

i) Serfoji-II was the adopted son of Tuljaji

ii) He became the ruler in 1787 A.D

iii) The English made Amar singh the ruler.

iv) But during the time of Wellesley, he was reduced as a pensioner.

3. Explain the causes for panchalamkuruchi battle.

i) Jackson, the Ramnad collector tried to arrest kattabomman but kattabomman escaped.

ii) To overthrow the overlordship of the British, kattabomman made an alliance with marudhu pandyar of Sivagangai.

iii) Many paligars joined with kattabomman.

VI. Detail

1. Write briefly about virapandiya Kattabomman.

i) Virapandya Kattabomman was born in A.D1761

ii) He came to power in A.D.1790

iii) Virapandya Kattabomman did not pay the tribute regularly and it fell arrears.

iv) Jackson, the collector of Ramnad asked him to meet and pay the arrears in full.

v) But Kattabomman disobeyed.

vi) It enraged the collector later Kattabomman decided to meet the collector.

vii) Jackson tried to arrest Kattabomman but he escaped with the help of his brother Umathurai.

viii) After this, Kattabomman decided to over throw the overlordship of the British.

ix) He made an alliance with Marudhu pandyer of Sivagangai.

2. Write an essay on south Indian Rebellion.


i) The company interfered in the matters of local principalities. It reduced the power and prestige of the local rulers.

ii) The princes and the poligars lost their dignity and respectable

status in the society.

iii) The oppressive policy in administration. The rude means of collection of taxes and the superiority complex of the British severely affected the people.

iv) By following the mercantile policy of gain. They increased taxes and collected it in high – handed manners.

v) Kattabomman was humiliated and hanged.

Marudhu Pandiar and the Southern League:

i) Marudhu Pandiar was one of the heroes of South Indian rebellion.

ii) When Kattabomman was hanged to death, he gave protection to Umathurai and others.

iii) Marudhu Pandiar issued proclamation to all the Indians to Unite against the British.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer

1. Poligar system was introduced by ____________

a) Viswanath Nayak b) Rani mangammal c) Ragunatha Nayak

Ans : a) Viswanath Nayak

2. Tower of Arunachaleswara temple was completed by ____________

a) Thirumalai Nayak b) Achutappa Nayak c) Vijaya Ragava

Ans : b) Achutappa Nayak

3. War of the Nosas took place during the reign of __________

a) Krishnappa Nayak b) Rani Meenakshi c) Thirumalai Nayak

Ans : c) Thirumalai Nayak

4. Umarupulawar wrote _____________

a) Kandar kalivenbah b) Irruuamaya Vizhakam

c) Serrapuranam

Ans : c) Serrapuranam

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Viswanath Nayak introduced ______________.

Ans : kaval Pitchai

2. ____________ acted as the regent of Vijayaranga Chokkanadhar.

Ans : Mangammal

3. Rani Meenakshi was imprisonal by ____________ at the palace at Trichy.

Ans : Chanda Sahib

4. __________ helped Vijayanakar ruler in the battle of Talikotta.

Ans : Achutappa Nayak

5. ____________ was taken as the date of Nayakship of Madurai.

Ans : 1529

6. Thirumalai Nayak shifted his capital from Trichy to __________

Ans : Madurai

7. ____________ conspired against Meenakshi to occupy the throne

Ans : Bangaru

8. Thimmappa Nayak was succeeded by his son_________.

Ans : Seveppa Nayak

9. Sevappa Nayak game 10 veli of land to the ____________temple.

Ans : Mulavur

III. Match the following

1. Thirumalai Nayak  a) Meygnana Vilakkam
2. Paranjothiar  b) Seerapuranam
3. Thiruvenkatam  c) Chidambara puranam
4. Umarupulavar  d) Chidambarapattial

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – A, 4 – B

1. Unni Keralavarmam  a) Madurai
2. Chokkanatha Nayak  b) The ruler of Vijayanagar
3. Sri Ranga III  c) Sevappaneri
4. Sadat Ullah Khan  d) Travancore
5. Shivaganga Lake  e) the ruler of Arcot

Ans : 1 – D, 2 – A, 3 – B, 4 – E, 5 – C

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. Write a short note on Rani Mangammal.

i) Rani Mangammal was the wife of Chokkanadhar.

ii) She became a regent of the 3 years old child Vijayaranga Chokkanadhar.

iii) Diplomatically, she saved the kingdom.

iv) She encouraged Christian missionaries.

2. Write a few on the conflict between clueen meenakshi and chanda Sahib.

i) Meenakshi adopted Vijaya kumara and started her rule as a regent.

ii) Bangaru was the father of Vijayakumara. He conspired against Meenakshi to occupy the throne.

iii) She promised to offer him a crore of rupees.

iv) Then he imprisoned Meenakshi in her own palace at Trichy.

3. How was “Ranipet” created?

i) Raja Desingh was the ruler of Senji.

ii) Sadat Ullah Khan, the ruler of Arcot invaded Senji.

iii) raja Desingh’s wife committed sati.

VI. Answer in detail

1. Give an account of Tirumalai Nayak’s rule.

i) Thirumalai Nayak defeated the forces of Mysore at Dindugul.

ii) Thirumalai Nayak was mainly responsible for the Muslim attack in Tamil County.

iii) Sri Ranga III, the ruler of Vijayanagar marched against Madurai, Thirumalai Nayak made an alliance with Nayaks of Senji and Tanjore.

iv) The Muslim captured Vellore and threatened Madurai.

v) Thirumalai Nayak attacked Mysore army and practiced the same method of cutting the noses of the enemies.

vi) This strange event was termed as “war of noses”.

Other works of Thirumalai Nayak

i) Thirumalai Nayak established an efficient system of administration.

ii) He maintained peace and security

iii) He game a free hand to the Portuguese and the Dutch.

iv) He shifted his capital from Trichy to Madurai.

v) He repaired many temples.

vi) He patronized the renowned Sanskrit school neelakanda Dikshidar.

2. Explain the contributions of the Nayaks in the field of art, architecture and literature.

Art and Arcitecture

i) The Nayak were great patrons of art and architecture

ii) The krishnapuram temple and Nellaiappar temple at Thirunelveli, kasi Viswanatha temple at Tenkasi, Ramanathapuram temple at Rameshwaram and the Bing Gopura of Srivilliputhur received the patronage of the Nayak of Madurai.

iii) He also provided golden roof to the mandapa of the Meenakshi temple.

iv) Thirumalai Nayak built with, the help of halian architech.

v) Big Mandapam at Thiruvannamalai Virudachalam etc., were built by him.

vi) He completed the tower of Arunachaleswarar at Thiruvannamalai


i) The Nayak made great contribution for the growth of literature.

ii) Thirumalai Nayak’s Chidhambarapuranam, Paranjothiar’s Chiadambarapattial, Haridasa’s Irusamaya vilakkam were the literary works of the Nayaks period.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer

1. The Great Revolt of 1857 took place during the period of Lord________.

a) Bentinck      b) Dalhousie    c) canning

Ans : c) Canning

2. The Sepoy mutiny first broke out in ______________

a) Barrakpore   b) Delhi           c) Kanpur

Ans : a) Barrackpore

3. ____________ was the first soldier who refused to use the greased cartridge

a) Mangal Pandey        b) Nana Shahib            c) Bahadur Shah

Ans : a) Mangal Pandey

4. The main political cause for the Great Revolt of 1857 was __________

a) Heavy taxes             b) Dual government     c) Doctrine of Lapse

Ans : c) Doctrine of Lapse

5. The English historians call the revolt of 1857 as ____________

a) The Great revolt       b) Freedom struggle c) Sepoy mutiny

Ans : C) Sepoy mutiny

6. The Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by _____________

a) Wellesley     b) Dalhousie    c) Hastings

Ans : b) Dalhousie

7. Mangal Pandy was a ____________

a) Brahmin sepoy b) British General c) Historian

Ans : a) Brahmin sepoy

8. The revolt at Lucknow was led by ___________

a) Hazarat Mahal         b) Nana Sahib c) Rani Lakshmi Bai

Ans : a) Hazarat Mahal

II. Fill in the blanks

1. ____________ was a culmination of the accumulated of the Indian people against the

British rule.

Ans : Great Revolt of 1857

2. The Great Revolt of 1857 is also known as ___________

Ans : The first war of Indian Independence

3. The immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 was the introduction of __________.

Ans : Greased cartridges.

4. The English troops under Sir John Nicholson captured ____________.

Ans : Delhi

1. The subsidiary Alliance system was introduced by ___________.

Ans : Lord Wellesley

2. The General service Enlistment Act was passed in ___________.

Ans : 1856

3. After the Great Revolt of 1857 the Governor General of India was called ___________.

Ans : Viceroy.

III. Match the following

1. Mangal Pandey  a) Central India
2. Tantia Tope  b) Barrackpore
3. Lord Canning  c) Commander of Nana Sahib’s forces
4. Rani Lakshmi Bai  d) The first viceroy of India

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – D, 4 – D

V. Give short answers

1. Why was Mangal Pandey changed by the British?

i) Mangal Pandy was a Brahmin sepoy.

ii) He was the first soldier to protest against the greased cartridges.

iii) He refused to use the cartridges and shot his officer dead.

iv) So he was arrested and hanged by the British.

2. Write a short note on the Great Revolt of 1857.

i) The revolt of 1857 was not sudden occurrence.

ii) It was a culmination of the accumulated grievances against the British.

iii) People from all sections of the society joined to revolt.

3. Write a short note on Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi.

i) The revolt central India was led by Rani lakshmi Bai of Jhansi.

ii) When the English forces laid a size to the fort of Jhansi Lakshmi fought bravely. But she could not defend the fort.

V. Answer in detatil

1. Analyze the various causes for the Great Revolt of 1857.

Political causes:

i) The British policies of created suspicion in the minds of the Indians.

ii) Lord Wellesley’s subsidiary Alliance and Lord Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse made the Indian rulers the deadly enemies of the English.

Economic causes

i) Under the British rule, the economic condition of the people had deteriorated.

ii) All trade and commerce of the country went into the hands of the English.

Social and religious causes

i) The introduction of railways, telegraphs and western education created suspicion in the minds of the people.

ii) The missionaries converted Hindus to Christianity.

Military causes

i) The Indian sepoy’s had many grievances against the British.

ii) They asked for better pay and good treatment Act based in 1856.

iii) In order to make the sepoy’s look smarter, they were asked to trim their moustaches and beards.

Immediate case

i) The immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 was the introduction of greased cartridges in the new Enfield Rifles.

ii) These cartridge’s had to be bitten by the sepoy’s in order to fit them in the new rifles.

iii) There was a rumour that these cartridges were greased with the fat of the cow and pig.

2. What were they causes for the failure of the Great Revolt of 1857?

i) There was no Unity among the Indians.

ii) The ideals of nationalism and Unity was not developed among the Indian masses.

iii) The revolt was not widespread all over the country.

3. Discuss the results of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Queen Victoria’s Proclamation.

i) The revolt of 1857 put an end to the rule of the English East India company.

ii) The administration of India was taken ones by the British crown.

iii) Queen Victoria’s Proclamation was issued on November-1 1858.

iv) The Board of control and the court of Directors were abolished and the office of the secretary of the state for Indian affairs was established.

v) The Governor General of India now came to be called as viceroy of India.

vi) The Indian army was thoroughly re-organized.

8th History

LORD DALHOUSIE [A.D 1848 – A.D 1856]

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by __________.

a) Lord Dalhousie b) Lord Amherst c) Lord Hastings

Ans : a) Lord Dalhousie

2. _______________ was annexed by Lord Dalhousie due to misgovernment

a) Satara               b) Jhansi         c) Oudh

Ans : c) Oudh

3. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was passed in _____________

a) 1853                        b) 1855               c) 1856

Ans : c) 1856

4. The first railway line was laid between Bombay and _____________

a) Madras         b) Thana               c) Pune

Ans : b) Thana

5. The Sepoy – mutiny (Great revolt) broke out in______________.

a) 1848                        b) 1857               c) 1858

Ans : b) 1857

6. The second Burmese was broke out in _________________.

a) 1848            b) 1852               c) 1857

Ans : b) 1852

7. In 1856 railway line was laid between _______________.

a) Mumbai and Thana              b) Thana and Poona

c) Madras and Arakkonam

Ans : Madras and Arakkonam

8. The father of Indian Railway is ______________.

a) Dalhousie    b) Hastings       c) Wellesley

Ans : a) Dalhousie

9. During the period of Dalhousie the army headquarters was shifted from Calcutta to ________.

a) Delhi b) Bengal c) Simla

Ans : c) Simla

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Lord Dalhousie became the Governor General of India in ___________.

Ans : 1848

2. _________ was the first kingdom to be annexed by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse.

Ans : Satara

3. Ganga Canal was constructed during the reign of ___________.

Ans : Dalhousie

4. Dalhousie annexed __________ at the end of the second Anglo Sikh was

Ans : Punjab

5. During the period of Dalhousie ___________ was made the summer capital

Ans : Shimla

6. ____________ was the winter capital during Dalhousie period.

Ans : Calcutta

7. Dalhousie introduced _________ postal system

Ans : Half anna

8. _________ is called the “Maker of modern India”.

Ans : Lord Dalhousie

III. Match the following

1. First railway line  a) adopted son of Baji Rao II
2. Woods Despatch  b) Nawab of Oudh
3. Nana Sahib  c) 1853
4. Wajid Ali Shah  d) 1854

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – A, 4 – B

IV. Answer the following in one word:

1. When was the second Anglo – Sikh war fought?

Ans : 1848

2. Who set up Public works Department?

Ans : Lore Dalhousie

3. Name the Universities set up during the period of Dalhousie?

Ans : Madras, Bombay, Calcutta

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. What was the Doctrine of Lapse?

If the ruler of a dependent state in India died without male son, his adopted son would not succeed him. But the state would pass back to the British. The adopted son would inherit only the personal property of the deceased.

2. What principles were adopted by Dalhousie to expand the British Empire in India?

i) By Doctrine of Lapse

ii) By wars

iii) On the grounds of mis – government

3. Name the states annexed through the Doctrine of Lapse

Dalhousie annexed Satara, Jaipur, Sambhalpur, Udaipur, Jhansi, Nagpur through the Doctrine of Lapse.

4. “Dalhousie was called the Father of Indian Railway” Justify.

i) Dalhousie is credited with the introduction of Railways.

ii) During his period the first railway line was laid between Bombay and Thane in 1853.

iii) In 1854 a railway line was laid from Howrah to Ranikanj.

iv) In 1856 a railway line was laid between Madras and Arakonam. Hence, Dalhousie was called the father of Indian Railways.

VI. Answer in detail:

1. Describe the reforms introduced by Lord Dalhousie.

Dalhousie introduced reforms in various fields.

Administration reforms

i) During the time of Dalhousie, Lieutenant Governor was appointed to look after the affairs of Bengal.

ii) Provinces were divided into districts.

iii) Each district was put under Deputy Commissioner.

Introduction of Railway

i) Dalhousie is credited with the introduction of Railways, in India.

ii) During his period the first railway line was laid between Bombay and Thane in 1853.

Post and Telegraph

i) Post and telegraph offices were set up throughout the country.

ii) He appointed a Director General to supervise the work of post offices in all presidencies.

iii) He introduced ½ Anna (3 Paise) postal system.

Commercial reforms:

i) Dalhousie introduced free trade.

ii) Madras, Bombay and Calcutta were improved

iii) He improved several harbours with modern facilities

iv) He encouraged the trade relations between India and English.

Social reforms

i) He tried to abolish

ii) He suppressed the thugs

iii) In 1856 the Hindu widow Re – marriage Act was passed

Educational reforms

i) During Dalhousie period Sir Charles Wood’s Despatch in 1854 introduced certain educational reforms in India.

ii) The Department of Public instruction form primary to province

iii) A number of educational institutions from primary to University level were established.

iv) An engineering college was also established in Roorkee.

Military reforms

i) Gurkhas were encouraged to join the Indian army

ii) Army headquarters was shifted from Calcutta to Shimla.

iii) Lord Dalhousie was the youngest. Governor General of India. His period is ever remembered for the introduction of railways posts and telegraphs. Hence he is called the “Maker of modern India”.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Lord Amherst was succeeded by ___________ as Governor general of India.

a) William Bentinck     b) Lord Hastings          c) Lord curson

Ans : a) William Bentinck

2. Lord William Bentinck is famous for his__________________.

a) English                     b) Persian                     c) reforms

Ans : d) reforms

3. The use of ___________ as court language was abolished _________.

a) English                       b) Persian                    c) Sanskrit

Ans : b) Persian

4. Human sacrifice was practiced by ________________

a) wild tribes of Orissa   b) Rajputs     c) people of central India

Ans : a) wild tribes of Orissa

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The first Burmese war came to an end by the Treaty of ____________ in 1826.

Ans : Yandaboo

2. _________________ is considered to be one of the greatest Governor General of India.

Ans : Lord William Bentinck.

3. _____________ was made the first law member in the executive council of the Governor General.

Ans : Lord Macaulay

4. The evil practice that prevailed in the Indian society was ___________.

Ans : Sati

5. The first Burmese war broke out in the year _____________.

Ans : 1824

6. The first Burmese war broke out during the period of Lord_________.

Ans : Amherst

7. At the end of the first Burmese war the English got ___________ got ______________.

Ans : Arakan, Tenasserim

8. The Thugs problem prevailed in ______________.

Ans : Central India

III. Match the following:

1. Abolition of Sati  a) English education
2. Major Sleeman  b) 1829
3. Raja Ram Mohan Rai  c) Suppression of Thugs
4. Lord Macaulay  d) Social reformer

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – D, 4 – A

IV. Answer in word:

1. When did Bentinck became the Governor General of India?

Ans : 1828

2. Where was the Elphinstan college established?

Ans : Bombay

3. Who reduced the bhatta of military officers?

Ans : William Bentinck

V. Answer the following

1. What do you know about the first Burmese war?

i) During the period of Lord Amhest the Burmese tried to capture Assam.

ii) So, in 1824 Lord Amhest declared war on Burma. This war was called the first Burmese war.

iii) In the war the English defeated the Burmese.

2. What were the reforms of Lord Bentinck?

i) Lord Bentinck wanted to improve the finance of the East India company.

ii) So he reduced the Salaries of Civil servants.

iii) He appointed the several Indians on low salaries.

iv) He regulated the Opium trade.

3. Mention the educational reforms of Lord William Bentinck.

i) Bentinck wanted to promote western education through the medium of English.

ii) As a result English became the medium of instruction in India.

iii) He opened a medical college at Calcutta.

iv) He established Elphinston college at Bombay.

4. What do you know about the administrative reforms of Lord William Bentinck?

i) Bentinck combined the office of the collector with that of the magistrate.

ii) He himself took charge of the commander in chief of the army and introduced several reforms.

iii) A new post of law member in the executive council of the Governor General was created.

VI. Detail:-

1. Give an account of the social reforms of Lord William Bentinck.

Lord Bentinck was famous for his reforms. His reforms may be classified under three headings.

i) Financial reforms                

ii) Administrative reforms

iii) Social reforms

Abolition of Sati

i) Sati was the most cruel practice among the Hindus.

ii) As per sati, a Hindu widow burnt herself alive on the funeral pyre of the deceased husband.

iii) At first, it was a voluntary act. It was prevalent mostly among the Rajputs.

iv) Anyone who forced a women to perform sati would be given capital punishment.

Abolition of Female infanticide

i) Another evil practice that existed among the tribes of Rajaputana and kathiawar was female infanticide.

ii) It was the practice of killing children at the time of their birth, mainly to avoid economic burden.

iii) So Bentinck abolished this evil practice and declared it a crime.

iv) Lord Bentinck declared that any person who practiced this barbarous act would be treated as a murderer.

Suppression of Thugs

i) The Thugs were gang of robbers who lived in central India.

ii) They used to loot and plunder

iii) They robbed the innocent travelers and put them to death.

iv) The things were caught in large numbers.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:-

1. Carnatic wars were fought in

a) 1736 – 1744                        b) 1740 – 1744                        c) 1746 – 1763

Ans : c) 1746 – 1763

2. The battle of Plassey was fought in

a) 1764                        b) 1757                        c) 1765

Ans : b) 1757

3. The founder of the British Empire in India was

a) Robert Cline                        b) Dupleix                  c) Mir Jafar

Ans : a) Robert Cline

4. Count – de – lally was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at the battle of

a) madras                     b) St.Thomas              c) Wandi wash

Ans : c) Wandi wash

5. Carnatic was originally a province.

a) Turks                       b) zhuns                       c) Mughal

Ans : c) Mughal

6. As a result of the First Carnatic war the English got back

a) Madras                     b) Calcutta                   c) Bombay

Ans : a) Madras

7. The British drone the French out of India by

a) 1673                        b) 1763                                    c) 1863

Ans : b) 1763

8. in Europe had an echo in India as the third Carnatic war.

a) Austrian war of succession              b) Seven years war

c) French Revolution

Ans : b) Seven years war

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Capital of Carnatic was Arcot.

2. The Hero of Arcot was Robert Cline.

3. The Battle of Buxar made the English East India company a Sovereign power in India.

4. La Bourdonna’s was the French Governor of Mauritius.

1. Carnatic was ruled by Anwaruddin

2. The first Carnatic war broke out in 1746

3. Santhome is situated on the banks of the river Adayar

4. Mohammad Ali took refuge in the fort of Tiruchirappalli

5. The second Carnatic war came to an end by the treaty of Pondicherry

III. Match the following:-

1. First Carnatic war – a) Treaty of Allahabad

2. Third Carnatic War – b) Village near Calcutta

3. Plassay – c) Aix – la – Chappelle

4. Battle of Buxar – d) Treaty of Pairs.

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – B, 4 – A

IV. Answer in one word:-

1. Name the treaty which was signed at the end of the First Anglo Mysore war.

Treaty of Madras

2. Who was made the Nawab of Bengal After the battle of Plassy?

Siray – Ud – Daulah

3. When did the battle of Buxar take place?

October 22, 1764

V. Answer the following Questions:-

1. What do you know about Black Tragedy?

i) The English and the French were Strengthening their fortification in Bengal.

ii) Siraj – Ud – daulab the Nawab of Bengal asked them not to fort William.

iii) The French obeyed but the English refused to do so.

iv) The British were also misusing their trade privileges.

v) So, Siraj captured Calcutta.

vi) One hundred and forty Six British soldiers were taken as captives. They were locked up in a small room.

2. Write any three causes for the success of the British in India.

i) Britan was commercially superior. The British in India was supported by the Home Government.

ii) The naval power of the British was far Superior to the French.

iii) There was full Co-operation among the English officers.

3. What do you know about Robert Cline’s Dual System of Government.

i) Robert cline introduced a new system called Dyarchy or Dual or Double Government.

ii) According to this system the British enjoyed all powers but no responsibility.

iii) The Nawab was reduced to a position of all responsibility and no power.

iv) The Dual Government was abolished in 1772.

4. What are the causes for the First Anglo Mysore war?

i) Mysore under Hyder Ali emerged as one of the most powerful kingdoms.

ii) Hyder Ali’s growing his finally relations with the French became a matter of concern for the English East India company.

iii) This led to the first Anglo Mysore war.

5. Why were the wars fought between 1746 – 1763 called Carnatic wars?

i) Three wars were fought between 1746 and 1763

ii) These wars were fought in the Carnatic region. So they were called Carnatic wars.

6. Mention the causes for the first Carnatic war.

i) This war was an echo of the Austrian war of succession.

ii) Dupleix, the French Governor of Pondicherry an ambition to establish the French power in India.

7. How did the First Carnatic war come to an end?

i) The first Carnatic war came to an end by the Treatly of Aix – la – Chapelle (1748).

ii) The English got back madras.

8. What blunder did the French Commits in the third Carnatic war?

i) The French General cont de Lally captured fort St.David.

ii) Bussy, the French General at Hyderabad was asked to attack madras. It was a great blunder committed the French.

VI. Answer in detail:-

1. Give an account of the causes, course and the results of the Second and Third

Carnatic wars.

The Second Carnatic war:-


i) He was connected with the succession disputes between the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Carnatic.

ii) The Nizam of Hyderabad Asaf Shah died in 1748.

iii) There arose a competition between his son Nasirjung and the grandson Muzzafar Jung.

iv) Almost at the same time the Nawab of Carnatic Dost Ali also died.

v) There was a dispute between Anwar – Ud din and his son – in throne of Arcot.


i) With the help of the French, Muzaffar fung and Chandra Sahib defeated

Anwaruddin at the battle ambar in 1769 and killed Ambur in 1769 and killed him.

ii) But his osn Mohammad Ali took refuge in the fort of Thichirapalli.

iii) Chandra Sahib became the Nawab of Carnatic.

iv) In Hyderabad, both Nazir jung and Muzaffar jung were killed.

v) Robert cline a Clerk in the British East India company changed the course of the war.


i) The second Carnatic war came to and end by the Treat of Pondicherry in 1755.

ii) By this treaty both sides affreed not off interfere in the internal affairs of the Indian princely states.

iii) They also agreed to return each others territories

iv) Mohammad Ali was acknowledged as the Nawab of Carnatic.

The Third Carnatic war:-

Causes :

i) In 1756 the seven years war broke out in Europe.

ii) The same war echoed in India as the Thrid Carnatic war.

Course :

i) The French General Count da Lally captured Fort St.David.

ii) Bussy the French General at Hyderabad was asked to attack madras.

iii) It was a great blunder committed by the French.

iv) When Bussy left Hyderabad the British captured Hyderabad.

v) But the British General Sir Eyre coote defeated both the French Generals at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760.

vi) In the next year 1761 Connt de Lally Surrounded Pondicherry to British.


i) The war came to an end by the Treaty of Paris in 1763.

ii) Pondicherry, Karaikal, Chandranagore and Mahe were returned to the French.

iii) But they were not allowed to fortify them.

iv) The British became more powerful in India.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:-

1. The great _____ trading centre was captured by ottoman Turks in 1453 A.D

a) Afghanistan                         b) Constantinople       c) Baluchistan

2. ______ was the first viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in India.

a) Francisco-de-Almeida        b) Alfonso-de-Albuquereque

c) Barthalomeo Diaz

3. The English east India company was started in

a) 1600 A.D               b) 1644 A.D                c) 1664 A.D

4. ______ became the head quarters of the French settlements in India.

a) Chandranagore        b) Pondicherry            c) Mahe

5. Vasco-da-Gama was a _________ sailor

a) Dutch                       b) Spanish                   c) Portuguese

6. The fall of  ______  was a great blow to the Portuguese.

a) Vijayanagar                       b) Talikota      c) Masulipatnam

7. In 1640 the English built  ______ to protect their trade

a) Fort St – George    b) Fort William            c) Rd fort

8. In 1580 Portugal came under the rule of  ______

a) England                   b) France        c) Spain

9. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe arrived at the court of the Mughal Emperor ______

a) Auragazeb               b) Shajahan      c) Jahangir

II. Fill in the blanks:-

1. The Portuguese captured Goa from the Sultan of ___________.

Ans : Bijapur

2. Captin William Hawking visited the court of the Mughal emperor ___________.

Ans : Jahangir

3. Sir Thomas Roe arrived India is ___________.

Ans : 1615

4. ____________came to India in 1742 as the Governor.

Ans : Dupleix

5. In 1453 A.D the ottoman Turks captured _____

Ans : Constantinople

6. _____ were the first to discover a new sea route to India.

Ans : The Portuguese

7. Vasco – da – Gama crossed _______ and reached Calicut.

Ans : Cape of Good Hope

8. The people of Denmark were known as ________

Ans : Danish

III. Match the following:-

1. Vasco- da- gama a) England
2. Mahe b) French settlement
3. Spice Island c) Portuguese Sailor
4. King James d) East Indies

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – B, 3 – D, 4 – A

1. Alexander  a) Cape of Storm
2. Barthalomea Diaz  b) Danish Trading Centre
3. Allanquarque  c) port
4. Tranquebar  d) Minister of Louis XIV
5. Colbert  e) Second Viceroy of the Portuguese

Ans : 1 C, 2 A, 3 E, 4 B, 5 – D

IV. Answer the following in a word:-

1. When was the French East India company formed?

Ans : 1664

2. Who was Francis Day?

Ans : English Merchant

3. In which city is Fort St.George located?

Ans : Madras

4. In which contained is the cape of Good Hope located?

Ans : Africa

5. How did the Portuguese king change the name of cape or Storm?

Cape of Good Hope

6. Who was the first Sailor?

Bartholomen Diaz

7. Where did Vascodagama land in


8. Who killed Almeida?

The Egyptians

V. Answer the following:-

1. Write any three causes for the decline of the Portuguese power in India.

i) Albuquerque’s successors were week. They could not strengthen the Portuguese hold over India.

ii) The Portuguese often indulged in Piracy against the Indian merchants.

iii) The Portuguese often forcibly converted the native to Christianity.

2. How did the English east India company?

i) Charles II the king of England married Catherine, the daughter of the king of Portugal.

ii) He got Bombay a Small village as a part of dowry.

iii) In 1668 Charles II gave Bombay on lease to the English east India company on a nominal rent of 10 pounds.

3. What were the trading centres of the French East India company in India?

i) Surat, Masulipatnam, Pondicherry, Chandranagore, Mahe and Karaikkal.

4. Write a note on Albuquesque.

i) Albuquerque was the second viceroy of the Portuguese in India.

ii) He was a great conqueror.

iii) He captured Goa and made it as the capital.

iv) He built the port of Ormuz in the persion Gulf.

v) He was good administrator.

Answer in detail.

1. Give an account of the English East India company in India.

i) In 1586, the English defeated the Spanish Armada.

ii) Consequently they became the most important naval power of Europe.

iii) Then they thought of establishing colonies in the Eastern Countries.

iv) So the English East India company was started by 100 London merchants.

v) They received permission from Queen Elizabeth – I on December 31st 1600 to carry on trade with the east.

vi) However permission was not given due to the influence of the Portuguese.

vii) He got Bombay a small village as a part of dowry.

2. Write about the establishment of trading centres by the Dutch and the French in India.

Establishment of Dutch trading centres:

i) The Dutch people of Holland founded the Dutch East India company in 1602.

ii) They began to trade with Eastern countries. They concentrated on “Spice Islands”.

iii) The Dutch company established its trading centres at Chinsura, nagapattinam, Surat and Masulipatinam.

iv) They founded pulicat near madras in 1610 and they built a forst there.

v) They also established trading centres at Surat Broach, Cambay, Ahmedabad Patna and kazimbazzar.

vi) The enmity between the Dutch and the English resulted in the Amboyna massacre in 1623.

vii) In 1759 the English captured Chinsura from the Dutch. Then the English also captured Nagapattinam.

viii) Thus the Dutch power in India came to an end.

Establishment of French trading centres:

i) The French East India company was establishment in 1664 by Colbert the minister of Louis XIV.

ii) They set up their factories at Surat 1668 and Masulipatnam in 1669.

iii) They got a palace to the south of madras from the ruler of Thanjore.

iv) The enmity between the French and the English led to the Carnatic wars.

v) The English came out successful in these wars.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The tutor of Shivaji was Deelaji Khonda dev

a) Dadaji Khonda dev               b) Shahji Bohnsh        c) Baji Rao

2. Shivaji had a council of 8 ministers called “Ashtapradhan”.

a) 7                               b) 8                           c) 9

3. The first peshwa was Balaji Viswanath

a) Balaji Viswanath      b) Balaji Baji rao          c) baji Rao

4. Treaty of Purandhar was signed between Raja jai singh and Shivaji

a) Raja Jaisingh                        b) Afzal khan              c) Shaistakhan

5. To subdue Shimiji the Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan

a) Afzal Khan              b) Sayistakhan                         c) Sherkhan

6. I A.D.1674, Shivaji got himself coronated at Raigash

a) Durandhar               b) Jorna                       c) Raigash

7. Shivaji did at Raigash

a) Purandhar                b) Torna                       c) Raigash

8. During Shivaji’s period justice was administered according to Hindu laws

a) Hindu laws              b) Sikh laws                 c) Muslim laws

9. The greatest of the pashwas was Baji Rao

a) Balaji Vishwanath    b) Baji Rao      c) Balaji baji Rao

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Marathas adopted Gverilla warfare.

2. The sultan of Bijapur sent Afzalkhan to Subdue Shivaji.

3. The Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire was called Peshwa.

4. After Aurangazeb’s death Bahadur Shah became the Mughal Emperor.

5. The territory ruled by Shivaji was known was Swarajya.

6. Guerilla warfare means Irregular warfare.

7. Shivaji father was Shahaji Bonslo.

8. Shivaji assumed the title Chahapati at Raigash.

9. Zamindari system was abolished by Shivaji.

III. Match the following.

1. Baji Rao – a) Persia

2. Nadir Shah – b) Ashtapradhan

3. Nyaadhish – c) King of Afghanistan

4. Ahmed Shah Abdhali – d) Forward policy

Ans : 1 d, 2 a, 3 b, 4 c

IV. Answer in one word:-

1. When was the third battle of Panipat fought?

Ans : 1761

2. In which year did Nadir Shah invade India?

Ans : 1739

3. When was the Treaty of Purandhar signed?

Ans : 1665

4. Who was known as “Mountain – Rat?

Ans : Shivaji

5. Where was Shivaji born?

Shiyner hill fort

6. Who was the eldest son of Shivaji?


7. Who led the Maratha forces in the III Battle of panipat?

Sadasiva Rao

8. Who was the third Pashwa?

Balaji baji Rao

9. Who was called the founder of the Peshwa rule?

Balaji Viswanath.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Explain briefly the conflict between Shivaji and Afzal Khan.

i) To Subdue Shivaji the Sultan of Bijapur deputed Afzal Khan to bring Shivaji dead or alive.

ii) Shivaji came to know of the treacherous plan of Afzal Khan.

iii) He made preparation to meet Afzal Khan.

iv) At the appointed place Afzal khan met and embraced Shivaji and tightened his grips.

v) With his right hand he tried to kill Shivaji.

2. How did Shivaji attack Shaista Khan?

i) In 1660 A.D. Aurangazeb sent Sayistakhan, the Governor of Deccan to check the activities of Shivaji.

ii) Sayistakhan camped at Poona.

iii) At night, Shivaji entered the house in the form of a marriage party and attacked Sayistakhan, who was fast asleep.

iv) Sayistakhan escaped losing his thump.

3. What were the causes for the defeat of the Marathas the third Battle of Panipat?

i) The Maratha’s policy of aggression and plunder brought about their downfall.

ii) The Marathas lost the Sympathies of their own relionists the Rajputs, the jats and the Sikhs.

iii) Ahmed Shah Abdali’s army was more trained and disciplined than the Maratha army.

4. Write a note on the invasion of nadir Shah.

i) Nadir Shah wanted to Plunder the immense wealth of India.

ii) He also wanted to earn name and fame by conquering the distant territories.

iii) He came to know that India was ruled by a weak and incompetent ruler Muhammad Shah.

iv) So he invaded India in 1739. He captured Peshwar.

v) Thousands of people killed.

VI. Answer in detail :

1. Narrate the career and achievements of Shivaji.

Early life:

i) Shivaji was born in 1627A.D at Shivner hill fort near poone.

ii) His father was Shahji Bhonsle. His mother was Jija bai.

iii) Shahji Bhonsle married Tukabai and neglected his first wife Jijabai and Shivaji.

iv) Hence he was brought up by his tutar and Guru Dadaji Khonda Dev.

v) Hee learned the puranic legends and the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha throught his mother.


Shivaji conquered the forts of Purandhar, Torna and kalian from the Sultan of Bijapur.

Shivaji, and Bijapur Sultan

i) Shivaji, the Sultan of Bijapur deputed Afzal khan to bring Shivaji dead or alive.

ii) Shivaji came to know of the treacherous plan of Afzal Khan.

iii) He made preparation to meet Afzal khan.

iv) with his right hand, he tried to kill Shivaji.

Shivaji and the Mughals:

i) In 1660 A.D., Aurangazeb sent sayistakhan the Governor of Deccan to check the activities of Shivaji.

ii) Sayistakhan camped at Poona.

iii) At night, Shivaji entered the house and attacked Saysitakhan, who was fast asleep.

iv) Sayistakhan escaped losing his thumb.

2. Give an account of the maratha empire under the Peshwas.

i) The Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire was called the Peshwa.

ii) As the successors of Shivaji became weak the Peshwas became the actual rules of the Maratha empire.

iii) They proved to be efficient administrators.

iv) The rule of peshwas started from 1713 A.D

v) Balaji viswanath was the first Peshwa.

Peshwa Balaji viswanath:

(1713 A.D 1720 A.D)

i) Balaji viswanath became the first Peshwa under the Maratha emperor Sahu.

ii) He was called as the founder of the Peshwa rule.

iii) He made Pershwaship hereditary.

iv) He revived the greatness of the Maratha’s. He died in 1720 A.D.

Peshwa Baji Rao:

(1720 A.D – 1740 A.D)

i) Baji Rao was the son of Peshwa Balaji Viswanath.

ii) He became the Peshwa after the death of his father.

iii) On account of his great ability he was regared as the greatest of the Peshwa’s.

iv) He wanted to expand the maratha Power in the North.

v) He followed a “Forward Policy”.

vi) He compelled the Nizam of Hyderabad to sign a peace treaty.

vii) He died in 1740 A.D.

Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao

(1740 A.D – 1761 A.D)

i) He was the third Pashwa.

ii) He had the able guidance of his cousin sadasiva Rao.

iii) The Maratha Power attained its Zenith in 1758 A.D.

iv) In 1761 A.D the Maratha Power reached its climax.

v) By the Power of the Marathas came to an end with the third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

8th History


I. Choose the correct answer:-

1. The first Battle of Panipat was fought in A.D 1526

a) 1536            b) 1526            c) 1506

2. Shershah has been called as the “Fore – runner of Akbar.

a) Akbar         b) Humayun   c) Shah Jahan

3. Jahangir set up a “ Chain of Justice”

a) Aurangazeb b) Jahangir     c) Babur

4. Guru Arjun Dev was the fifth sikh guru

a) Fifth            b) Ninth           c) Tenth

5. Babu defeated Rana Sanga in the Battle of Kanwah

a) First Battle of Panipat

b) Battle of Kanwah

c) Battle of Gaghra

6. The Father of modern currency is Shershah

a) Babur           b) Shershah      c) Akbar

7. Chand Bibi was the ruler of Ahmed nagar

a) Ahmed nagar b) Bijapur      c) Akbar

8. Akbar’s tomb at Sikhandara was built by Jahangir

a) Nurjahan      b) Jahangir       c) ShaJahan

9. Akbar ascended the throne at the age of 14

a) 13                b) 14                c) 15

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Humayun means Fortunate.

2. In the second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated Hemu.

3. The reign of Shahjahan has been called as the “Golden Age of the Mughals”.

4. Tansen lived in the court of Akbar.

5. The last Sultan of Delhi was Ibrahim Lodi.

6. Babur became the ruler at the age of 11.

7. Babur defeated Medini Rai in the battle of Chauderi.

8. Babur wrote his autobiography called Tuzuk-i-Babri.

9. The last great Mughal emperor was Aurangazeb.

III. Match the following:


1. Rana sanga  (a) 1587
2. Din – I – Ilahi  (b) Revenue system
3. Second Battle of Panipat  (c) Ruler of Mewar
4. Raja Toolar mal  (d) 1556

Ans. 1 – (C), 2 – (a), 3 – (d), 4 – (b)


1. Sherkhan  a) Lion king
2. Jahangir  b) king of the world
3. NurJahan  c) Light of the Palace
4. ShahJahan  d) Conqueror of the world

Ans : 1 – a, 2 – e, 3 – d, 4 – c, 5 – b

IV. Answer in one word

1. When was the Battle of Kanwah fought? A.D.1527

2. How is Jahangir’s Autobiography known as? Tuzuk – I – Jahangiri

3. Who was Akbar’s – guardian? Bairamkhan

4. Who was known as the “light of the world”? Nur Jahan

V. Answer the following questions:-

1. How did Babu established the Mughal Empire in India?

(i) Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.

(ii) Babur accepted invitation and invaded India.

(iii) He met Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat on 21st April 1526 and the First Battle of Panipat started.

(iv) Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in the battle field.

(v) The rule of Delhi sultanate was brought to an end.

(vi) Thus Babur laid the foundation for the Mughal empire in India.

2. Sketch the role of NurJahan in the Mughal History?

 (i) Jahangir married Nurjahan in 1611.

(ii) Nurjahan was an intelligent, educated and cultured women

(iii) Although Jahangir was the King, she exercised the real power.

(iv) The period between 1611 – 1626 may be called as the Age of Nurjahan.

(v) But after the death of jahangir in A.D.1627. She lost her importance.

3. Write a note on the currency reforms of shershah.

(i) Shershah abolished the old and mixed currency.

(ii) He fixed the ratio between copper and silver coins.

(iii) He issued silver and gold coins.

(iv) These coins bore his name in Devanagiri scripts.

(v) These currency reforms were formed to be useful to improve the general economic condition of the nation.

(vi) Hench he has been called the father of modern currency”.

4. List any four causes for the downfall of the Mughal empire in India.

(1) Aurangazeb’s religious policy.

i) The most important cause was the religious policy of Aurangazeb.

ii) He ill– treated the Hindus, the Rajputs and the Sikhs.

iii) This made them the deadly enemies against the Mughals.

(2) Vast expanse of the Mughal empire.

i) The Mughal empire became very vast.

ii) It was very difficult for the Mughal rulers to control the distance parts of the empire.

3) Weakness of Aurangazeb’s Successors

i) The successors of Aurangazeb were very weak.

ii) So they could not check the disintegration of the empire.

4) Absence of the law of Primogeniture

i) The absence of the law of primogeniture was another cause for their downfall.

ii) There was a war of succession among the sons after the death of each Mughal emperor.

5. First battle of Panipat – write a short note.

i) Daulat Khan Lodi invited Babur to invade India.

ii) babur accepted this invitation and invaded India.

iii) Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed in the battle field.

iv) The rule of Delhi Sultanate was brought to an end.

6. Why is Shahjahan called the Prince of Builders?

Shahjahan has been called as the “Prince of Builders” and “Engineer king”. He found the Mughal cities in Red Sandstone and left them in marbles. He built a new capital “Shahjahanabad”.

7. Trace the Rajput policy of Akbar.

i) Akbar followed cordial relations towards the Rajputs.

ii) He married Jodhbai, the Princess of Jaipur.

iii) Akbar abolished “Jizya” and “Pilgrimage taxes.

8. What do you know about the last days of Shah Jahan?

i) Shahjahan fell ill in A.D.1657.

ii) A war of Succession broke out among his four sons.

iii) His third son Aurangazeb imprisoned Shah Jahan in A.D.1658.

iv) He Passed away in A.D.1666.

VI. Answer the following:-

1. Whose period is known as the “Golden of the Mughals”?why?

i) The region of Shahjahan is known as the “Golden Age of the Mughal’s.

ii) The power and prestige of the Mughal empire reached its height during his time.

iii) There was both prosperity and poverty during his period.

Prince of Builders:

i) Shahjahan is called the “Prince of Builders” and “Engineer king”.

ii) He found the Mughal cities in Red sandstone and left them in white Marbles.

iii) He build a new capital “Shahjahanabad”

Jama Masjid:

i) It was build by Shah Jahan at Delhi in white Marbles.

ii) It is considered to be one of the largest mosques in the world.

The Taj Mahal:

i) The Taj mahal is the most famous building of Shah Jahan.

ii) It was built at Agra on the banks of river Yamuna in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz.

iii) It is considered as one of the seven wonders of the world and a dream in marble.

iv) It was built by Ustad is a Chief architect of that time.

v) It’s estimated cost was about Rs.20 Lakhs.

vi) It took nearly 22 years to complete it.

Other Arts:

i) Fine arts like music, Painting and literature reached a high and of development during the time of Shahjahan.

ii) He was a great Patron of arts and letters.

iii) Hence the reign of Shahjahan is known as the “Golden age of the Mughals”.

2. Give a brief account on the administration of the Mughals.

Central administration.

i) The Mughal administration system was in the nature of a military rule and was a centralized despotism.

ii) The Emperor or Padshah had all powers in his hands.

iii) He was an absolute ruler.

iv) He was regarded as the “Shadow of God on Earth”.

v) He was assisted by a council of ministers.

Provincial administration

i) For administration convenience the empire was divided into a number of provinces known as “Subas”.

ii) Each suba was under a subedar or Governor.

iii) During Akbar’s time there were 15 Subas.

iv) The Subedar was in charge of the subas.

v) Each sarkar was further divided into “Parganas”.

Revenue Administration:

i) The main source of income was the land revenue.

ii) Raja Todar mal, the famous Revenue Minister helped Akbar in this field.

iii) Akbar made improvement on Shershah’s land revenue system. So Shershah was called the Fore-runner of Akbar.

iv) Akbar introduced “Zabti” system.

v) All the lands were measured with an uniform standard of measurement.

vi) Tax could be paid in cash.

vii) The officers were instructed to be kind with the peasants.

Military administration:

i) The Mughal army consisted of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry.

ii) Cavalry was an important branch of the army.

Judicial administration:

i) The king was the fountain head of Justice.

ii) He was assisted by the Chief Qazi.

iii) Cases were tried according to Quaranic law.