9th Geography


I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Tea, coffee, rubber, pepper and cashew are plantation crops

2.  Agriculture is the primary traditional occupation

3.  Dry farming type of farming is known as manavari in Tamil Nadu.

4.  Well type of irrigation is most pre dominate irrigation system in Tamil Nadu

5. Tamil Nadu rice research institute is in aduthurai


1. Rearing of birds- poultry

2. Rearing of silk worms-sericulture

3. Rearing of honey bees- apiculture

4. Growing fruits-horticulture

5. thuthukudi –leading port in fish export


1. what do you mean by subsistence intensive farming?

  • Farming that is carried on small land holdings that produces food crops for local consumption and not for external trade is known as subsistence intensive farming.
  • Most farmers in Tamil Nadu practice subsistence intensive farming.

2. Write short note on a) mixed farming b) plantation farming c) market gardening

A) Mixed Farming

Mixed farming is one where in land allotted for more than one activity along with agriculture

B) Plantation Farming

Plantation farming is yet another type of farming where crops are grown on large farms or estate.

C) Market Gardening

Market gardening includes horticulture and floriculture they are grown on the large scale and supplied to the urban market for export purposes.

3. Name the factors influencing agriculture

The factors influencing agriculture may be classified as physical, social and economic factors

The physical factors include soil, temperature, rainfall, humidity, climate and slopes of land.

The social factors include traditional, knowledge, belief, and myths of farmers, farm size and holdings and farmers acceptance towards innovation.

4. Bring out the significance of Kallanai in Tamil Nadu

Kallanai built around first century by Karikalan is still in use.

It is considered to be the oldest water regulatory structure in the world.

The grand anaicut build across the river kaveri near thiruchirapalli diverts the water to the entire delta region through canals.

5. Difference between wet farming and dry farming.

Wet farming Dry farming
Water supply is available throughout the year from rainfall for irrigation Farming is carried out only during rainy season without irrigation.
Rice and sugarcane are grown Ragi and millets are grown
Most river basins Tamil Nadu practice this type of farming Drier region of Vellore Thiruvannamalai, Ramanadhapuram, Thirunelveli practice this type of farming.

6. Difference between marine fishing and deep sea fishing

Marine fishing Inland fishing
It is carried out in the oceans and seas It is carried out in lakes rivers, ponds, estuaries, back waters and swamps.
Large mechanized boats are used for fish catching. Catamaran, diesel boats, floating net cages are used.
Fish varieties are sharks, flying fish, counch, cat fish, silver bellies and crabs. Fish varieties are catla, rogue, mirkal, eel and calabaashu.


1. Describe the cropping seasons of Tamil Nadu.

Cropping seasons of Tamil Nadu can be grouped as sornavari, samba, navarai.

A) Sornavari is the otherwise known as kharif season.

  • The seeds are sown during may and harvested in October.
  • The month of may coincide with tamil month chitthirai.
  • It is also known as chitthirai pattam.

B) Samba is otherewise known as summer season

  • The seeds are sown in the month of july which coincides with
  • The month of aadi.
  • It is harvested in January.
  • This season is reffered to as aadi pattam in Tamil Nadu.

C) Navarai seeds are sown in the month of November.

  • It is harvested in march.
  • This season is nowmn as karthigai pattam
  • The tamil month kathigai coincides with month of November.

2. Write a paragraph about inland fishing.

  • Fishing carried out in lakes, rivers, ponds,estuaries,back waters and swamps is called inland fishing.
  • Catamaran (small wooden boats) , diesel boats, and floAting net cages are used.
  • Fish varieties are catla, rogue, mirkal, eel, and calabaashu.
  • The state has three hectares of inland water,63000 hectares of estuaries, back waters and the swamps.
  • Oysters and prawns are cultured inorganized nurseries ennore and pulicat lake for export.
  • The estimated inland fish production for the year 2007 to 2008 was 164,504 tonnes.
  • The vellore district ranks first among the districts with 10% of inland fishing production of the state.
  • Cudallore, sivagangai and virudhunagar stand second with 9% of inland fish catch.

3. Write about the changing trends in agriculture in Tamil Nadu

  • Tradition method of agriculture is slowly being replaced by scientific and technical methods.
  • Agricultural university in Coimbatore and MS. Swaminathan research foundation in Taramani, Chennai are actively involved in fusing traditional with modern methods.
  • A few recent agricultural innovative trends are MICRO irrigation, integrated pest control management(IPM) , growing blue green algae and azolla, precision forming through remote sensing, geographical information system and global positioning system.
  • Increase in organic matter will increase the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • This will support the microbial activity and hasten the nutrient absorption capacity of roots.

4. Mention the efforts taken by the government in improving agriculture in the state.

Efforts taken by government to improve agriculture are

  • The government supplies quality and certified seeds to the farmers.
  • The organic matter and micro nutrients are supplied at subsidized rate.
  • Free electricity is provided to small and marginal farmers for about 6 to 8 hours a day.
  • Government fixes the prices for agricultural products to safe guard the farmers from financial crisis.
  • Farmers market (uzhavar santhai) enhances the farmers to get better share of prices at same time consumers to get agricultural produce at affordable prices.
  • Crop insurance scheme has been introduced.
  • Government has set up agricultural export zones in nilgiris and krishnagiri