8th Geography


I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Activities for which humans depend directly on nature known as______________.

Ans : Primary activity.

2. _________is an activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

Ans : Herding

3. The most primitive form of Primary activity is __________ and_______.

Ans : Food gathering and hunting.

4 _________temperate forests are more extensively used for _________.

Ans : Lumbering

5. __________in oceans is usually a more complex activity.

Ans : Fishing

II. Choose the correct answer:

1. Jaravas are aborigines of ____________.

a) Andaman and Nicobar         b) Africa          c) Canada

Ans : a) Andaman and Nicobar

2. Eskimos of Canada are ___________.

a) Hunters                                b) Gatherers     c) Herders

Ans : a) Hunters

3. Abundant food for fishes are available near_____________.

a) Continental shelf     b) Continental slope c) Trenches

Ans : a) Continental shelf

4. Two – thirds of industrial wood is obtained from___________.

a) Temperate forests                b) Tropical forests       c) Tundra

Ans : a) Temperate forests

5. Primary activity that is practiced on a larger scale is_____________.

a) Gathering                 b) Hunting                   c) Mining

Ans : c) Mining

III. Match the following:

1. Bushman – a) Tropical forests

2. Japan – b) Africa

3. Teak – c) Fishing grounds

4. Coniferous – d) Animal food

5. Fodder – e) Soft wood

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – E, 5 – D

IV. Answers briefly:

1. Name the Primary activities.

Hunting, gathering, harding, lumbering, mining, fishing and agriculture are Primary activities.

2. What is herding?

i) Herding is a primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

ii) This involves seasonal migration of the nomads and their flocks from one area to another in search of fresh pastures.

3. Name some places and people involved in gathering activity.

i) Bushman of Africa

ii) Jaravas of Andaman and Nicobar.

4. What is inland fishing?

i) Fishing done in rivers, lakes and coastal areas is called inland fishing.

ii) Inland Fishing is simple and a small scale.

5. Why are temperate forests used more extensively than tropical forests for lumbering?

i) In the temperate forest trees have soft wood.

ii) A large number of coniferous trees of the same type are found together.

V. Detail:

1. Discuss the fishing activity in the oceans.

i) Fishing in the Oceans is more complex activity.

ii) Abundant food for the fish in the form of Plankton is available in the continental shelves and shallow seas.

iii) Large ships called factory ships travel in the oceans for months at a time.

iv) They catch, process and tin the fish on the ship itself.

v) They use modern technology to track the fish. This has often resulted in overfishing in some parts of the world.

vi) Besides fishing, whale and seal hunting and pearl collection are also carried out in the oceans.

2. Write an essay on the types of Primary activities.

Gathering hunting, herding, fishing, lumbering and mining are Primary activities.


i) Gathering is Primary activity in which people gather their requirements from nature.

ii) It includes the collections of fruits and roots from forests and includes hunting also.


i) People hunt animals for their meat and skin.

ii) Hunting is still prevalent among remote isolated groups of people.

iii) Pygmies of Africa and Amerindians of the Amazon basin and Eskimos of Canada go for hunting.


i) It is a Primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on pastural lands.

ii) People migrate from one place to another in search of fresh pastures.

iii) Now the nature of herding is different in different regions.

iv) The herders of North America, South America and Australia more to large ranches where fodder is cultivated.


i) Fishing is going on in rivers, lakes and coastal areas.

ii) In land fishing is simple and it is done in a small scale.

iii) Simple fish nets are used to catch fish.

Lumbering :

i) Lumbering is a Primary activity that extracts woods from the forests.

ii) Timber is used for fuel, furniture making, paper and pulp industry.

Mining and agriculture:

i) Mining and agriculture are other primary activities.

ii) They involve more human interaction and they are practiced on a large scale.


I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. Masai Herdsmen are the natives of ________________.

2. The world’s largest inland fishing lake is _______________.

3. Large ship that travel in the oceans for months at a time are called________________.

4. Hard wood trees are found in _________________ forests.

5. Mining is a ______________ activity.