8th Geography

TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION

I. Fill in the blanks

1. The Transcontinental railway links ______________ with Vladivostok.

2. ____________ are the cheap means of transport.

3. Buckingham canal carried goods from Nellore to _______________.

II. Choose the correct answer

1. ______________ is a major port

a) Puducherry  b) Chennai      c) Cuddalore

2. Pipelines are used to carry__________

a) Coal             b) Oil              c) Wood

3. Telegraph was invented in the year __________

a) 1844             b) 1855           c) 1866

4. The most common mode of the transport is the

a) Roadways    b) Railways      c) Water ways

5. Indian Railways is the _________ largest in the world.

a) Second         b) Third            c) Fourth

6. The Fastest means of transport is the ___________

a) Roadways    b) Railways       c) Airways

III. Match the following

1. Brahmaputra – a) North America

2. Rhine – b) Transcontinental Highway

3. Alaskan Highway – c) Major port

4. Visakhapatnam – d) Inland water ways

5. TPAS – e) Germany

IV. Answer the following

1. How are roads classified?

Roads are classified as transcontinental highways national highways and local roads.

2. Write a note on Indian Railways.

i) Railways are the cheapest and fastest means of transport for carrying bulk goods over long distances.

ii) It is the densest in the Gangetic Plains of U.P., Bihar and West Bengal.

iii) These rail lines are either underground rail lines or elevated above the ground.

3. Name the different means of communication.

i) Tele communication and mass communication are the two types of communication.

1. What is meant by road density?

Road density is the ratio between the total length of roads in a country to its total land area.

2. What is meant by Population density?

Population density is the ratio between the total number of people in a country to its total land area.

V. Paragraph:

1. Write about the major Shipping routes of the world.

i) The North Atlantic route connects the crowded countries of Europe to the Eastern coast of North America.

ii) The Cape of Good Hope route connects western and Southern Europe with South- West Asia and Australia.

iii) The panama canal route connects the west coast regions of North and South Americas with their east Coastal regions.

2. What do you know about inland waterways?

i) Deep navigable rivers with a perennial flow of water and navigation canals constitute the inland water ways.

ii) The most important inland water way lies in the industrially advanced countries of western Europe, North America and Canada.

3. Give an account of mass communication.

i) Mass communication includes all those media designed to reach a large audience.

ii) Mass communication can be divided into two categories the print media include books, Journals, Magazines and news papers.

VI. Detailed

1. The development of transport and communication is important for the development of a country Discuss.

TRANSPORT

i) Transport and communication play an important role in the development of a country.

ii) A good transportation system helps the movement and exchanged of resources and manpower resulting in economic growth.

iii) Roadways help the economic development of a country.

iv) There is a close relationship between road density and the economic development of a country.

v) The greater the road connectivity, the more is the economic developments.

vi) Railways are cheap and fast means of transport.

vii) Air ways are the fastest and costliest means of transport.

COMMUNICATION

i) Telecommunication and mass communication also play an important role in the development of country.

ii) The Indian National Satellite has revolutionized communication in India in recent years.

8th Geography

TRADE

I. Fill in the blanks

1. Latin America exports _______________.

2. Rubber and tin are found abundantly in ________________.

3. Industrial countries export ___________ to the less industrial countries.

4. Trade between countries is called ____________.

5. The European country which exports large amount of paper and wood pulp ___________.

6. Latin American countries import_____________.

7. African countries are the importers of ______________.

II. Match the following:

1. China – Middle Eastern countries

2. Oil – Mineral Ores

3. Paper – Silk

4. Africa – Malaysia

5. Tin – Canada

III. Choose the correct answer

1. Trade with in the country is called _________________.

a) Internal trade b) International Trade c) Open trade

2. Industrial raw materials are _____________ products

a) Primary b) Secondary c) Tertiary

3. Switzerland is famous for ____________

a) Silk b) Watchers c) Tea

IV. Answer the following

1. What is meant by bilateral and multilateral trade?

i) Bilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between two countries.

ii) Multilateral trade is the exchange of commodities between a number of countries.

2. What are the two main categories of commodities that enter into the world trade?

i) Primary products include cereals – fruits and other food items

ii) Cotton, Jute etc are also primary products.

iii) Secondary products are manufactured goods.

3. Why does trade occur?

i) Trade occurs because of surplus of goods in one place and the demand for the same in another place.

ii) The difference in the natural resources of countries forms the basis of trade between countries.

IV. Paragraph

1. How does climate affect the trade of a country?

i) Differences in climatic conditions result in different types of agricultural, animal and forest products.

ii) So difference in climatic conditions affect the trade of a country.

iii) Exchange of goods takes place between different climatic regions.

iv) For example Temperate regions supply softwood and dairy products.

2. Write a short on balance of trade

i) The difference in values between imports and exports of a country is referred to as the balance of trade.

ii) If exports exceed imports the country is said to have a favourable balance.

V. Detail

1. Discuss the factors that affect trade.

Uneven distribution of natural resources.

Differences in climate, geology, Soil, vegetation and minerals resources result in the exchange of goods.

Stage of industrial

Industrial countries export finished products to other loss industrialized countries.

Differences in Climate

i) Differences in Climatic conditions result in different types of agricultural, animal and forest products.

ii) So differences in Climatic conditions affect the trade of a country.

Differences in Population

i) People in different regions produce distinctive types of goods because of their long tradition of producing certain goods.

ii) Countries like china exports silk and Switzerland exports watches.

Transportation

Transportation play an important role in the development of trade. The development of roads. Oil Pipeline and so on in a country facilitate international trade by transporting a variety of bulky goods to the ports.

Government Policies

International trade is influenced by Political relationship. When the relationship  between countries is good, then there is more trade.

2. Give an account of the world’s major trading regions.

Europe

Europe is one of the most densely Populated and highly industrialized regions.

North America

The USA has the largest volume of trade together with Canada.

Latin America

This region covers the Caribbean Islands and central and South America countries.

All them export foodstuffs and raw materials and import manufactured goods.

Africa

African countries export minerals ores and tropical raw materials and import manufactured goods.

Asia

Asian countries are rich in raw materials and minerals and they export them.

8th Geography

MINING

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Mining is also known as a ____________ Industry.

Ans : Robber

2. Open cast mining is also called__________.

Ans : Quarrying

3. Minerals are non – renewable____________.

Ans : Resources

4. Mica is used in _____________ industries.

Ans : Electrical

5. ____________are tower like features in the oil fields.

Ans : Derricks

6. Minerals are classified based on their metallic content as_______ minerals, _________ minerals and________.

Ans : metallic, non – metallic, power.

7. In the alluvial mining minerals are extracted by ________or_________.

Ans : Panning, dredging

8. Minerals once extracted cannot be__________.

Ans : Replaced

9. Lime stone is extracted by _________.

Ans : Quarrying

10. Sulphur is used in _________ industries.

Ans : Heavy chemical

II. Choose the correct answer:-

1. The mineral found in alluvial deposits is ___________.

a) Gold                        b) Iron             c) Coal

Ans : a) Gold

2. The ore of aluminium is ____________.

a) Sulphur                    b) Salt              c) Bauxite

Ans : c) Bauxite

3. Anthracite is the ore of _____________.

a) Iron                          b) Coal                         c) Gold

Ans : b) Coal

4. A kind of non metallic mineral is

a) Petroleum                b) Sulphur        c) Iron

Ans : b) Sulphur

III. Match the following:

1. Fuel  a) Tin
2. Malaysia  b) Gold
3. Alluvial Mining  c) Quarrying
4. Limestone  d) Chile
5. Copper  e) Coal

Ans : 1 – E, 2 – A, 3 – B, A – C, 5 – D.

IV.Answer briefly:-

1. How do Minerals occur on the earth?

i) Minerals may occur in pure form or many be mixed with other materials of the rocks as ores.

ii) Minerals ores may occur in cracks, faults or joints of rocks or as sediments.

2. Write a note on Shaft mining.

i) In the shaft mining ores are extracted from greater depths beneath the surface.

ii) Shaft mining is more expensive than the surface mining.

3. Name the different types of coal.

Peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite are the different are mineral fuels.

4. What are mineral fuels?

Coal, Oil and natural gas are mineral fuels.

5. What is alluvial mining?

Alluvial mining is used to extract minerals by panning or dredging minerals like tin and gold which are sometimes mixed with alluvium in the river bed.

V. Detail

1. Describe the types of mining.

i) There are different types of mining to extract minerals. Mining may be on the surface or subsurface depending the occurrence of minerals.

ii) Surface mining, Quarrying and drilling are the three major types of mining.

Surface Mining

Surface mining method includes open cast mining strip mining and alluvial mining. It is used to mine the minerals.

Open Cast Mining

Open cast mining method includes open cost mining.

Strip mining

Strip mining removes long strips of over lying soil and rock.

Alluvial mining

Alluvial mining is used to extract minerals by panning or dredging minerals like tin and gold which are sometimes mixed with alluviam in the river bed.

Quarrying

Quarrying is the mining of building materials like limestone from the earth’s surface.

Underground mining

i) In underground mining ores extracted from greater depths beneath the surface.

ii) Underground mining is more expensive than the surface mining.

Drilling

i) Drilling method is used to extract minerals like oil and natural gas.

ii) Oil rigs are used for sights in the fields are the tower like features or derricks which mark the places where the oil is being drilled.

2. Write an essay on metallic minerals.

Minerals like iron, Copper, aluminium, tin and gold are metallic.

Iron Ore

i) Magnetite, hematite, limonite and siderite are the different types of iron ore.

ii) Iron one mines are found largely in U.S.A Canada, Australia, China, Brazil, India and Kazakhstan.

Copper

i) Copper is Mined from open pits.

ii) Large copper mines are found in Utah in USA Mexico, Zambia, Chile and Indonesia.

Bauxite:

i) Bauxite is the ore of aluminum

ii) Bauxite is the ore of aluminum

Tin

i) Tin ore is called cassiterite

ii) Tin ore is obtained by alluvial mining.

Gold

i) Gold is a precious

ii) It is extracted through the placer or alluvial method

iii) Carat is the term used for the purity of gold.

8th Geography

TYPES OF PRIMARY ACTIVITY

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Activities for which humans depend directly on nature known as______________.

Ans : Primary activity.

2. _________is an activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

Ans : Herding

3. The most primitive form of Primary activity is __________ and_______.

Ans : Food gathering and hunting.

4 _________temperate forests are more extensively used for _________.

Ans : Lumbering

5. __________in oceans is usually a more complex activity.

Ans : Fishing

II. Choose the correct answer:

1. Jaravas are aborigines of ____________.

a) Andaman and Nicobar         b) Africa          c) Canada

Ans : a) Andaman and Nicobar

2. Eskimos of Canada are ___________.

a) Hunters                                b) Gatherers     c) Herders

Ans : a) Hunters

3. Abundant food for fishes are available near_____________.

a) Continental shelf     b) Continental slope c) Trenches

Ans : a) Continental shelf

4. Two – thirds of industrial wood is obtained from___________.

a) Temperate forests                b) Tropical forests       c) Tundra

Ans : a) Temperate forests

5. Primary activity that is practiced on a larger scale is_____________.

a) Gathering                 b) Hunting                   c) Mining

Ans : c) Mining

III. Match the following:

1. Bushman – a) Tropical forests

2. Japan – b) Africa

3. Teak – c) Fishing grounds

4. Coniferous – d) Animal food

5. Fodder – e) Soft wood

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – E, 5 – D

IV. Answers briefly:

1. Name the Primary activities.

Hunting, gathering, harding, lumbering, mining, fishing and agriculture are Primary activities.

2. What is herding?

i) Herding is a primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on natural pastures.

ii) This involves seasonal migration of the nomads and their flocks from one area to another in search of fresh pastures.

3. Name some places and people involved in gathering activity.

i) Bushman of Africa

ii) Jaravas of Andaman and Nicobar.

4. What is inland fishing?

i) Fishing done in rivers, lakes and coastal areas is called inland fishing.

ii) Inland Fishing is simple and a small scale.

5. Why are temperate forests used more extensively than tropical forests for lumbering?

i) In the temperate forest trees have soft wood.

ii) A large number of coniferous trees of the same type are found together.

V. Detail:

1. Discuss the fishing activity in the oceans.

i) Fishing in the Oceans is more complex activity.

ii) Abundant food for the fish in the form of Plankton is available in the continental shelves and shallow seas.

iii) Large ships called factory ships travel in the oceans for months at a time.

iv) They catch, process and tin the fish on the ship itself.

v) They use modern technology to track the fish. This has often resulted in overfishing in some parts of the world.

vi) Besides fishing, whale and seal hunting and pearl collection are also carried out in the oceans.

2. Write an essay on the types of Primary activities.

Gathering hunting, herding, fishing, lumbering and mining are Primary activities.

Gathering:

i) Gathering is Primary activity in which people gather their requirements from nature.

ii) It includes the collections of fruits and roots from forests and includes hunting also.

Hunting:

i) People hunt animals for their meat and skin.

ii) Hunting is still prevalent among remote isolated groups of people.

iii) Pygmies of Africa and Amerindians of the Amazon basin and Eskimos of Canada go for hunting.

Herding:

i) It is a Primary activity in which people graze a large number of animals on pastural lands.

ii) People migrate from one place to another in search of fresh pastures.

iii) Now the nature of herding is different in different regions.

iv) The herders of North America, South America and Australia more to large ranches where fodder is cultivated.

Fishing:

i) Fishing is going on in rivers, lakes and coastal areas.

ii) In land fishing is simple and it is done in a small scale.

iii) Simple fish nets are used to catch fish.

Lumbering :

i) Lumbering is a Primary activity that extracts woods from the forests.

ii) Timber is used for fuel, furniture making, paper and pulp industry.

Mining and agriculture:

i) Mining and agriculture are other primary activities.

ii) They involve more human interaction and they are practiced on a large scale.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. Masai Herdsmen are the natives of ________________.

2. The world’s largest inland fishing lake is _______________.

3. Large ship that travel in the oceans for months at a time are called________________.

4. Hard wood trees are found in _________________ forests.

5. Mining is a ______________ activity.

8th Geography

RESOURCES AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. According to the stage of evolution economic activities are grouped into _________main types.

Ans : Five

2. In Primary activity people are ________involved with the resources of nature.

Ans : Directly

3. Processing and converting raw materials to a finished from is called _____________activity.

Ans : Secondary

4. The workers involved with tertiary activities are called as ______ collar.

Ans : Pink

5. In _______ countries primary and secondary activities are more than the tertiary and quinary activities.

Ans : developing

II. Choose the Correct answer:

1. This is a Primary activity_____________.

a) Lumbering               b) Banking                  c) Consultation

Ans : a) Lumbering

2. People working in __________ sectors are called white collar workers

a) Primary                    b) Secondary              c) Quarternary

Ans : c) Quarternary

3. ___________ promotes industrial activities

a) grazing                     b) transport                  c) hunting

Ans : b) transport

4. Quinary activities are more in ____________.

a) Villages                    b) Schools        c) metropolitan centres

Ans : c) metropolitan centres

5. Policy activities are more in ______________.

a) Primary activity       b) Quinary activity c) Tertiary activity

Ans : b) Quinary activity

III. Match the following:

1. Blue coller workers – a) Fishing

2. Entertainment – b) Tertiary

3. Trade – c) Secondary

4. Primary – d) Skilled and Unskilled

5. Labour – e) quarternary

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – E, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – D.

IV. Write brief answers.

1. What are Primary activities?

i) The activities in which human’s are directly involved with the resources are called primary activities.

ii) Food gathering, hunting animals, grazing, extracting minerals (Mining), Fishing, Lumbering, and cultivation of the land are called Primary activities.

iii) Workers involved in Primary activities are called red – collar workers.

2. Write a short note on tertiary activities.

i) Trade, Transport and communication, which are related services that promote secondary activities are called the tertiary activities.

ii) Tertiary activities involve the expertise provide by the specialized skill of technicians workers bankers etc.,

iii) The workers involved in tertiary activities are called pink – collar workers.

3. Write about quinary activities.

i) The decision makers and policy makers at the highest land fall into this category.

ii) Legal advisors and professional consultants in Private and Government sector come under this category.

iii) They are called Gold-Collar workers.

iv) Quinary activities are seen more in metropolitan centres.

V. Detail

1. Discuss the different types of economic of man.

i) Economic of man activities can be grouped into 5 types.

1) primary activities

2) Secondary activities

3) Tertiary activities

4) Quarternary activities

5) Quinary activities.

Primary Activities:

i) The activities in which humans are directly involved with the resources are called Primary activities.

ii) Foot gathering, hunting animals, grazing etc.,

iii) Workers involved in Primary activities are called red – collar workers.

Secondary activities

i) Humans increase the value of resources by processing and converting the raw materials into a valuable product in the secondary activities.

ii) Examples of such activities are the production of sugar from sugarcane and iron and steel from its raw materials etc.,

iii) Raw materials are processed with other inputs.

iv) Workers involved in Secondary activities are called blue – collar workers.

Tertiary activities:

i) Trade Transport and communication, which are related to services that promote secondary activities are called the tertiary activities.

ii) Tertiary activities involve the expertise provided by the specialized skill of technicians, workers, bankers etc.,

Quarternary activities:

i) Services rendered by professionals in education, legal aid, medicine, entertainment, recreation management, research and development which have specialized environments fall under the category of Quartenary activities.

ii) People working in these sectors are called white – collar workers.

iii) Generally this activity is concentrated in Urban centres.

Quinary activities:

i) Decision makers and policy makers at the highest level fall into the category.

ii) Legal advisors and professional consultants in Private and Government sector come under this category.

iii) They are called Gold – Collar workers.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS:

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Hunting is a ______________ activity.

2. The workers involved in Primary activities are called ___________ collar workers.

3. Activities related to services are called ______________ activities.

4. Quinary activities are seen more in__________________.

8th Geography

RESOURCES AND THEIR TYPES

I. Fill in the blanks:-

1. A material which is found in nature and is useful to human is called___________.

Ans : Resource.

2. Minerals once extracted cannot be____________.

Ans : Replaced.

3. _____________play a very important role in the economic development of a country.

Ans : Power minerals

4. Uranium is a __________ minerals.

Ans : Nuclear

5. ______________have ebormous potential to develop solar power.

Ans : Tropical regions

6. Resources are classified into __________ and __________ resources.

Ans : Potential and developed

7. On the basis of renewability resources are classified into ____________ and ____________ resources.

Ans : Renewable and non-renewable

8. Minerals are classified into __________ and _____________ minerals.

Ans : metallic and non-metallic

9. India’s largest offshore oil fuels is in Mumbai High.

Ans : Mumbai High.

II. Choose the correct answer:-

1. Resources already in use by humans are called

a) Developed               b) Potential                  c) Flow resource

Ans : a) Developed

2. Minerals are resources.

a) Renewable               b) Non – renewable     c) Biotic

Ans : b) Non – renewable

3. A major user of wind energy in the world is

a) Europe                     b) South America         c) Antarctica

Ans : a) Europe

4. Type of Coal mined our state is

a) Lignite                     b) Anthracite                c) Graphite

Ans : a) Europe

5. The largest Hydro electric Power project of India is

a) Bakra nangal            b) Mettur                      c) Damodar

Ans : a) Bakra nangal

6. Lignite is also called _____________.

a) Brown coal              b) Black Coal              c) Brown Coal

Ans : c) Brown Coal

7. In Tamil Nadu, Lignite is mined at ______________.

a) Neyveli                    b) Nilgiris                     c) Salem

Ans : a) Neyveli

8. In India major oil fields are found in ______________.

a) Orissa                      b) Assam                     c) West Bengal

Ans : b) Assam

9. The delta area in TamilNadu where petroleum is found is_____________.

a) Vaigai          b) Cauvery       c) South Pennar

Ans : b) Cauvery

10. The world’s largest producer of nuclear power is _____________.

a) UK b) USA c) Japan

III. Match the following:-

1. North Sea – a) Nuclear Power

2. Avalvaimozhi – b) Oil fields

3. Oil and coal – c) Yangtze

4. Three Gorges dam – d) Fossil fuel

5. Thorium – e) Wind farms

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – E, 3 – D, 4 – E, 5 – A

IV. Write brief answers:-

1. Define a) Non – renewable resources and b) Potential resources.

a) Non renewable resources

i) Non – renewable resources are exhaustible resources because nature has a fixed stock of these resources.

ii) They are consumed faster than nature can replace them.

iii) Minerals are non-renewable resources because once they are extracted they cannot be replaced.

iv) Metallic minerals are examples of non-renewable resources.

b) Potential resources

i) Potential resources are those resources which have not yet been utilized by human.

ii) Resources of Siberia and Antarctica are examples potential resources.

2. Write about winds energy.

i) Wind energy is generated by using the wind to run turbines areas where there is constant flow of wind.

ii) Europe is a major user of wind energy.

iii) Twenty percent of Denmark’s electricity comes from wind power.

iv) In India Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu have developed wind Power.

v) In Tamil Nadu a large number of wind mills are found is Aralvaimozhi.

3. Why should we use resources wisely?

i) We should use non-renewable resources wisely because they cannot be replaced.

Nature has a fixed stock of these resources.

4. What are the three spheres that support the Biosphere?

They are Lithosphere or land the Hydrosphere or water and the atmosphere or the air that envelops the earth.

5. Mention the major oil fields of India.

i) In India Assam stands first in oil fields.

ii) Offstone oil fields are found in Mumbai High.

iii) In Tamil Nadu oil fields are found in the Cauvari basin.

6. Mention the places where nuclear power stations are located in India.

In India nuclear power stations are located at Madras, Rajasthan, kaiga, Tarapura, kakrapara and Narora.

V. Answer the following questions in detail:-

1. Explain the formation of Cool and Oil.

COAL:

i) Coal is called a “fossil fuel” because it was “formed many million years ago.

ii) Large forests were buried in Sedimentary basins by geological processes.

iii) Over time the buried plant matter got converted into coal due to pressure and heat.

iv) Coal fields are found largely in USA, Russia, Germany and the U.K.

OIL:

i) Oil is usually found in some strata of marine sedimentary rocks like mudstone, shale sandstone.

ii) The remains of Plants and Calcareous animals (Shelled animals) which buried in the earth were subjected to heat and Pressure.

iii) They changed into oil. This oil is found trapped in the pore spaces of the rocks.

2. Write an account of renewable resources.

i) Renewable resources are those which are infinite or are constantly renewed by nature.

ii) They continue to be available even after a part of it is consumed.

iii) Hydro – electric power, Solar power and wind energy are important renewable resources.

Hydro – Electric Power:

i) Hydro – electric power is the most developed source of renewable power.

ii) It is generated from falling water.

iii) Hydrological power is used extensively in many parts of the world where there are large rivers.

Solar Energy:

i) Solar energy is use to light homes, building and heat water.

ii) photovoltaic cells are required to stone the sun is energy.

iii) Germany is the world’s largest producer of Solar power.

iv) Tropical regions have anommous potential to develop solar power.

Wind energy :

i) Wind energy is generated by using the wind to run turbines in areas where there is constant flow of wind.

ii) Twenty percent of Denmark’s electricity comes from wind power.

iii) Europe is the major user of wind energy.

8th History

VELLORE MUTINY – 1806

I. Choose the correct answer

1. The Vellore mutiny took place in the year

a) 1806 b) 1807 c) 1808

2. The Sepoys were influenced by ____________

a) English officers b) Tipus family c) Robert cline

3. The Governor of Madras presidency at the time of Vellore sepoy mutiny was_____________

a) William Bentinck b) Cornwallis c) Robert clive

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Indian Sepoys refused to wear the ___________ which led to the Mutiny.

2. ___________ was outside the fort when the mutiny started.

3. The mutiny was suppressed by _____________.

III. Match the following

1. Tipu’s son  a) Turban
2. Agnew  b) Mutineers
3. Sepoys  c) Bentinck
4. Governor of Madras  d) Fatch Hyder

IV. Answer the following

1. When and where did the Mutiny started?

Vellore in 1806

2. Why did the Sepoys of Vellore revolt?

i) The strict discipline, new weapons, new methods and changes in dress code introduced by the British created resentment among the sepoys.

ii) Hindus were Prohibited from wearing ornaments like earnings and caste marks on their forehead.

3. What was the immediate cause for the revolt?

i) General Agnew introduced a new turban called Agnew Turban.

ii) The Turban resembled the European hat.

iii) It bore different colours affixed by a bodge with the symbol of the cross on it.

4. Mention the results of the revolt?

i) Many Indian soldiers were arrested and imprisonment.

ii) Tipu’s family was taken to Calcutta. They were kept in Prison for more than six years.

iii) The mutiny revealed the Patriotic and revengeful attitude of the Indians towards the British.

5. Why was it called Vellore Mutiny?

The mutiny was called led by the sepoy of Vellore Mutiny Fort. So it was called the Vellore Mutiny.

6. Mention some of the names of rebel leaders?

Pulithevan, Kattabomman and Marudhu brothers.

V. Detail

1. What were the causes for Vellore Mutiny?

i) The mutineers were influenced by the family of Tipu Sultan. They were confined to the Vellore fort after the death of Tipu Sultan.

ii) The recruitment of a large number of Indians in the army created suspicion in the minds of the Indian people.

iii) Most of the Sepoys were from the Palayams after the death of their great leaders like Pulithavan, Kattabomman and Marudhu Pandiyar. It left deep scar in the hearts of the rebels.

iv) The sepoys were form both Tamil and Kanada speaking regions and they exchanged betel leaf in order to find themselves together for the attainment of a common goat.

v) The strict discipline, new weapons new methods and changes in dress code introduced by the British created a resentment among the sepoys.

vi) Hindus were prohibited from wearing oranaments like earring and caste marks on their forehead.

Vii) Those sepoys who refused to wear the Turban were punished by 500-900 lashes and they were also terminated form the service.

2. Trace the course of the mutiny. Why did the mutiny fail?

Course of the mutiny

i) The mutiny was instigated by the sons of Tipu Sultan.

ii) They secretly planned the revolt.

iii) On july 9th 1806, Tipu’s daughter’s wedding celebrations were going on inside the fort.

iv) The Sepoys gathered there to attend the function.

v) They proclaimed his son Hyder as the king.

Causes of the failure of the mutiny

i) There was no proper leadership

ii) The revolt was not well organized

iii) The sepoys could not get support and supplies on time from the native rules.

8th History

THE RULE OF THE MARATHAS OF THANJAVUR [A.D 1676 – A.D 1856]

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Ekoji was the son of ____________

a) Shaji Bhonsle           b) Shivaji         c) Shambaji

2. Saraswathy Mahal was established by _____________

a) Viswanatha Nayak b) Thirumalai Nayak c) Safoji-II

3. Panchalamkuruchi was ruled by____________

a) Safoji-II                   b) Jethupathy   c) Kattabomman

4. Vira Pandya kattabomman was hanged at_________

a) Sivaganga                b) Kayatharu    c) Kalaiyar Koil

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Dalhousie annexed Tanjavur by applying _____________.

2. Tuljaji patronized the great Telugu poet __________.

3. Vira Pandya kattabomman was humiliated by the British collector_________.

4. In the year ______________ kattabomman was hanged.

5. Shivaji led expedition against ____________ region.

6. _________ was harsh towards Christians.

7. The Maratha rule in Thanjavur came to an end is ____________.

8. Marudhu Pandian was hanged to death in _____________.

5. Umathurai was impaled at _____________.

III. Match the following

1. Baskara Dikshit – a) British collector of Ramnad

2. Jackson – b) 1801

3. South Indian Rebellion- c) British commander

4. Bannerman – d) patronized by the Marathas of Thanjavur

IV. Answer in one word:

1. Who established the Marathas rule in Thanjavur?

Ans : Venkoji

2. Why was called Andhra Kalidasa?

Ans : Aluri Kuppanna

3. Which was the capital of Katabomman?

Ans – Panchalamkuruchi

4. When did Vira Pandya kattabomman come to power?

Ans : A.D 1790

V. Answer the following questions:

1. Write a note on Shaji-II?

i) Shaji-II was the son of venkaji

ii) He was a brilliant and bale ruler.

iii) He was a great patron of scholars

2. Give a brief account on Serfoji-II?

i) Serfoji-II was the adopted son of Tuljaji

ii) He became the ruler in 1787 A.D

iii) The English made Amar singh the ruler.

iv) But during the time of Wellesley, he was reduced as a pensioner.

3. Explain the causes for panchalamkuruchi battle.

i) Jackson, the Ramnad collector tried to arrest kattabomman but kattabomman escaped.

ii) To overthrow the overlordship of the British, kattabomman made an alliance with marudhu pandyar of Sivagangai.

iii) Many paligars joined with kattabomman.

VI. Detail

1. Write briefly about virapandiya Kattabomman.

i) Virapandya Kattabomman was born in A.D1761

ii) He came to power in A.D.1790

iii) Virapandya Kattabomman did not pay the tribute regularly and it fell arrears.

iv) Jackson, the collector of Ramnad asked him to meet and pay the arrears in full.

v) But Kattabomman disobeyed.

vi) It enraged the collector later Kattabomman decided to meet the collector.

vii) Jackson tried to arrest Kattabomman but he escaped with the help of his brother Umathurai.

viii) After this, Kattabomman decided to over throw the overlordship of the British.

ix) He made an alliance with Marudhu pandyer of Sivagangai.

2. Write an essay on south Indian Rebellion.

Causes

i) The company interfered in the matters of local principalities. It reduced the power and prestige of the local rulers.

ii) The princes and the poligars lost their dignity and respectable

status in the society.

iii) The oppressive policy in administration. The rude means of collection of taxes and the superiority complex of the British severely affected the people.

iv) By following the mercantile policy of gain. They increased taxes and collected it in high – handed manners.

v) Kattabomman was humiliated and hanged.

Marudhu Pandiar and the Southern League:

i) Marudhu Pandiar was one of the heroes of South Indian rebellion.

ii) When Kattabomman was hanged to death, he gave protection to Umathurai and others.

iii) Marudhu Pandiar issued proclamation to all the Indians to Unite against the British.

8th History

THE NAYAK RULE IN TAMIL COUNTRY

I. Choose the correct answer

1. Poligar system was introduced by ____________

a) Viswanath Nayak b) Rani mangammal c) Ragunatha Nayak

Ans : a) Viswanath Nayak

2. Tower of Arunachaleswara temple was completed by ____________

a) Thirumalai Nayak b) Achutappa Nayak c) Vijaya Ragava

Ans : b) Achutappa Nayak

3. War of the Nosas took place during the reign of __________

a) Krishnappa Nayak b) Rani Meenakshi c) Thirumalai Nayak

Ans : c) Thirumalai Nayak

4. Umarupulawar wrote _____________

a) Kandar kalivenbah b) Irruuamaya Vizhakam

c) Serrapuranam

Ans : c) Serrapuranam

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. Viswanath Nayak introduced ______________.

Ans : kaval Pitchai

2. ____________ acted as the regent of Vijayaranga Chokkanadhar.

Ans : Mangammal

3. Rani Meenakshi was imprisonal by ____________ at the palace at Trichy.

Ans : Chanda Sahib

4. __________ helped Vijayanakar ruler in the battle of Talikotta.

Ans : Achutappa Nayak

5. ____________ was taken as the date of Nayakship of Madurai.

Ans : 1529

6. Thirumalai Nayak shifted his capital from Trichy to __________

Ans : Madurai

7. ____________ conspired against Meenakshi to occupy the throne

Ans : Bangaru

8. Thimmappa Nayak was succeeded by his son_________.

Ans : Seveppa Nayak

9. Sevappa Nayak game 10 veli of land to the ____________temple.

Ans : Mulavur

III. Match the following

1. Thirumalai Nayak  a) Meygnana Vilakkam
2. Paranjothiar  b) Seerapuranam
3. Thiruvenkatam  c) Chidambara puranam
4. Umarupulavar  d) Chidambarapattial

Ans : 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – A, 4 – B

1. Unni Keralavarmam  a) Madurai
2. Chokkanatha Nayak  b) The ruler of Vijayanagar
3. Sri Ranga III  c) Sevappaneri
4. Sadat Ullah Khan  d) Travancore
5. Shivaganga Lake  e) the ruler of Arcot

Ans : 1 – D, 2 – A, 3 – B, 4 – E, 5 – C

V. Answer the following questions briefly:

1. Write a short note on Rani Mangammal.

i) Rani Mangammal was the wife of Chokkanadhar.

ii) She became a regent of the 3 years old child Vijayaranga Chokkanadhar.

iii) Diplomatically, she saved the kingdom.

iv) She encouraged Christian missionaries.

2. Write a few on the conflict between clueen meenakshi and chanda Sahib.

i) Meenakshi adopted Vijaya kumara and started her rule as a regent.

ii) Bangaru was the father of Vijayakumara. He conspired against Meenakshi to occupy the throne.

iii) She promised to offer him a crore of rupees.

iv) Then he imprisoned Meenakshi in her own palace at Trichy.

3. How was “Ranipet” created?

i) Raja Desingh was the ruler of Senji.

ii) Sadat Ullah Khan, the ruler of Arcot invaded Senji.

iii) raja Desingh’s wife committed sati.

VI. Answer in detail

1. Give an account of Tirumalai Nayak’s rule.

i) Thirumalai Nayak defeated the forces of Mysore at Dindugul.

ii) Thirumalai Nayak was mainly responsible for the Muslim attack in Tamil County.

iii) Sri Ranga III, the ruler of Vijayanagar marched against Madurai, Thirumalai Nayak made an alliance with Nayaks of Senji and Tanjore.

iv) The Muslim captured Vellore and threatened Madurai.

v) Thirumalai Nayak attacked Mysore army and practiced the same method of cutting the noses of the enemies.

vi) This strange event was termed as “war of noses”.

Other works of Thirumalai Nayak

i) Thirumalai Nayak established an efficient system of administration.

ii) He maintained peace and security

iii) He game a free hand to the Portuguese and the Dutch.

iv) He shifted his capital from Trichy to Madurai.

v) He repaired many temples.

vi) He patronized the renowned Sanskrit school neelakanda Dikshidar.

2. Explain the contributions of the Nayaks in the field of art, architecture and literature.

Art and Arcitecture

i) The Nayak were great patrons of art and architecture

ii) The krishnapuram temple and Nellaiappar temple at Thirunelveli, kasi Viswanatha temple at Tenkasi, Ramanathapuram temple at Rameshwaram and the Bing Gopura of Srivilliputhur received the patronage of the Nayak of Madurai.

iii) He also provided golden roof to the mandapa of the Meenakshi temple.

iv) Thirumalai Nayak built with, the help of halian architech.

v) Big Mandapam at Thiruvannamalai Virudachalam etc., were built by him.

vi) He completed the tower of Arunachaleswarar at Thiruvannamalai

Literature

i) The Nayak made great contribution for the growth of literature.

ii) Thirumalai Nayak’s Chidhambarapuranam, Paranjothiar’s Chiadambarapattial, Haridasa’s Irusamaya vilakkam were the literary works of the Nayaks period.

8th History

THE GREAT REVOLT OF 1857

I. Choose the correct answer

1. The Great Revolt of 1857 took place during the period of Lord________.

a) Bentinck      b) Dalhousie    c) canning

Ans : c) Canning

2. The Sepoy mutiny first broke out in ______________

a) Barrakpore   b) Delhi           c) Kanpur

Ans : a) Barrackpore

3. ____________ was the first soldier who refused to use the greased cartridge

a) Mangal Pandey        b) Nana Shahib            c) Bahadur Shah

Ans : a) Mangal Pandey

4. The main political cause for the Great Revolt of 1857 was __________

a) Heavy taxes             b) Dual government     c) Doctrine of Lapse

Ans : c) Doctrine of Lapse

5. The English historians call the revolt of 1857 as ____________

a) The Great revolt       b) Freedom struggle c) Sepoy mutiny

Ans : C) Sepoy mutiny

6. The Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by _____________

a) Wellesley     b) Dalhousie    c) Hastings

Ans : b) Dalhousie

7. Mangal Pandy was a ____________

a) Brahmin sepoy b) British General c) Historian

Ans : a) Brahmin sepoy

8. The revolt at Lucknow was led by ___________

a) Hazarat Mahal         b) Nana Sahib c) Rani Lakshmi Bai

Ans : a) Hazarat Mahal

II. Fill in the blanks

1. ____________ was a culmination of the accumulated of the Indian people against the

British rule.

Ans : Great Revolt of 1857

2. The Great Revolt of 1857 is also known as ___________

Ans : The first war of Indian Independence

3. The immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 was the introduction of __________.

Ans : Greased cartridges.

4. The English troops under Sir John Nicholson captured ____________.

Ans : Delhi

1. The subsidiary Alliance system was introduced by ___________.

Ans : Lord Wellesley

2. The General service Enlistment Act was passed in ___________.

Ans : 1856

3. After the Great Revolt of 1857 the Governor General of India was called ___________.

Ans : Viceroy.

III. Match the following

1. Mangal Pandey  a) Central India
2. Tantia Tope  b) Barrackpore
3. Lord Canning  c) Commander of Nana Sahib’s forces
4. Rani Lakshmi Bai  d) The first viceroy of India

Ans : 1 – B, 2 – C, 3 – D, 4 – D

V. Give short answers

1. Why was Mangal Pandey changed by the British?

i) Mangal Pandy was a Brahmin sepoy.

ii) He was the first soldier to protest against the greased cartridges.

iii) He refused to use the cartridges and shot his officer dead.

iv) So he was arrested and hanged by the British.

2. Write a short note on the Great Revolt of 1857.

i) The revolt of 1857 was not sudden occurrence.

ii) It was a culmination of the accumulated grievances against the British.

iii) People from all sections of the society joined to revolt.

3. Write a short note on Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi.

i) The revolt central India was led by Rani lakshmi Bai of Jhansi.

ii) When the English forces laid a size to the fort of Jhansi Lakshmi fought bravely. But she could not defend the fort.

V. Answer in detatil

1. Analyze the various causes for the Great Revolt of 1857.

Political causes:

i) The British policies of created suspicion in the minds of the Indians.

ii) Lord Wellesley’s subsidiary Alliance and Lord Dalhousie Doctrine of Lapse made the Indian rulers the deadly enemies of the English.

Economic causes

i) Under the British rule, the economic condition of the people had deteriorated.

ii) All trade and commerce of the country went into the hands of the English.

Social and religious causes

i) The introduction of railways, telegraphs and western education created suspicion in the minds of the people.

ii) The missionaries converted Hindus to Christianity.

Military causes

i) The Indian sepoy’s had many grievances against the British.

ii) They asked for better pay and good treatment Act based in 1856.

iii) In order to make the sepoy’s look smarter, they were asked to trim their moustaches and beards.

Immediate case

i) The immediate cause of the revolt of 1857 was the introduction of greased cartridges in the new Enfield Rifles.

ii) These cartridge’s had to be bitten by the sepoy’s in order to fit them in the new rifles.

iii) There was a rumour that these cartridges were greased with the fat of the cow and pig.

2. What were they causes for the failure of the Great Revolt of 1857?

i) There was no Unity among the Indians.

ii) The ideals of nationalism and Unity was not developed among the Indian masses.

iii) The revolt was not widespread all over the country.

3. Discuss the results of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Queen Victoria’s Proclamation.

i) The revolt of 1857 put an end to the rule of the English East India company.

ii) The administration of India was taken ones by the British crown.

iii) Queen Victoria’s Proclamation was issued on November-1 1858.

iv) The Board of control and the court of Directors were abolished and the office of the secretary of the state for Indian affairs was established.

v) The Governor General of India now came to be called as viceroy of India.

vi) The Indian army was thoroughly re-organized.