# TNPSC – Laboratory Assistant in Forensic Department Syllabus

## Openings  for  Higher Secondary Completed Students in Tamil Nadu Government Sector!!!!!

### Post & Vacancy Details:

 Name of the Post Service Department No., of  Vacancies Pay Scale Laboratory Assistant in Forensic Science Department 2016 – 2018 Tamil Nadu Forensic Science Subordinate Service 56 Level – 8 Rs. 19,500 –  62,000/-

### What to Study ??

• Questions Will be in OBJECTIVE method.

Find the Syllabus for Forensic Department Laboratory Assistant Exam – HSC Standard.

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`(A) PHYSICS`

UNIT – I: ELECTROSTATICS

Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation; Coulomb’s law – forces between two point electric charges. Forces between multiple electric charges – Superposition principle

Electric field – Electric field due to a point charge, electric filed lines; Electric dipole, electric filed intensity due to a dipole – behaviour of dipole in a uniform electric field – application of electric dipole in microwave oven.

Electric potential – potential difference – electric potential due to a point charge and due a dipole. Equipotential surfaces – Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges.

Electric flux – Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to (1) infinitely long  straight  wire  (2)  uniformly  charged  infinite  plane  sheet  (3)  two  parallel  sheets and (4) uniformly charged thin spherical shell (inside and outside)

Electrostatic   induction   –   capacitor   and   capacitance   –   Dielectric   and   electric polarisation   –   parallel   plate   capacitor   with   and   without   dielectric   medium   – applications of capacitor – energy stored in a capacitor. Capacitors in series and in parallel – action of points – Lightning arrester – Van de Graaff generator.

UNIT –II: CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric current – flow of charges in a metallic conductor – Drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current.

Ohm’s  law,  electrical  resistance.  V-I  characteristics   –   Electrical  resistivity  and conductivity. Classification of   materials in terms of conductivity – Superconductivity (elementary   ideas)   –   Carbon   resistors   –   colour   code   for   carbon   resistors   – Combination  of  resistors  –  series  and  parallel  –  Temperature  dependence  of resistance – Internal resistance of a cell – Potential difference and emf of a cell. Kirchoffs   law   –   illustration   by   simple   circuits   –   Wheatstone’s   Bridge   and   its application  for  temperature  coefficient  of  resistance  measurement  –  Metrebridge  – Special case of Wheatstone bridge – Potentiometer – principle – comparing the emf of two cells.

Electric power – Chemical effect of current – Electro chemical cells Primary (Voltaic, Lechlanche, Daniel) – Secondary – Rechargeable cell – lead acid accumulator.

UNIT- III: EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

Heating  effect.  Joule’s  law  –  Experimental  verification.  Thermoelectric  effects  – Seebeck  effect  –  Peltier  effect  –  Thomson  effect  –  Thermocouple,  thermoemf, neutral and inversion temperature. Thermopile.

Magnetic effect of electric current – Concept of magnetic field. Oersted’s experiment

– Biot-Savart law – Magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire  and  circular  coil  –  Tangent  galvanometer  –  Construction  and  working  –  Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid – magnetic field lines.

Amper’s circuital law and its application.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic field and electric field  – cyclotron – Force on current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, forces between two parallel current carrying conductors – definition of ampere.

Torque  experienced  by  a  current  loop  in  a  uniform  magnetic  field-moving  coil galvanometer – Conversion to ammeter and voltmeter – Current loop as a magnetic dipole  and  its  magnetic  dipole  moment  –  Magnetic  dipole  moment  of  a  revolving electron.

UNIT-IV: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT

Electromagnetic induction – Faradys’s law – induced emf and current – Lenz’s law. Self  induction  –  Mutual  induction  –  Self  inductance  of  a  long  solenoid  –  mutual inductance of two long solenoids.

Methods of inducting emf – (1) by changing magnetic induction (2) by changing area enclosed   by  the  coil  and  (3)  by  changing  the  orientation  of  the  coil  (quantitative treatment) analytical treatment can also be included.

AC generator – commercial generator. (Single phase, three phase).

Eddy current – Applications – Transformer – Long distance transmission.

Alternating current  –  measurement  of  AC  – AC  circuit  with  resistance  –  AC  circuit with inductor – AC circuit with capacitor – LCR series circuit – Resonance and Q – factor: power in AC circuits.

UNIT – V: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND WAVE OPTICS

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics – Electromagnetic spectrum, Radio, Microwaves, Infra red, visible, ultra violet – X rays, gamma rays.

Emission   and   absorption   spectrum   –   Line,   Band   and   continuous   spectra   – Flourescence and phosphorescence.

Theories of light – Corpuscular – Wave – Electromagnetic and Quantum theories. Scattering  of  light  –  Rayleigh’s  scattering  –  Tyndal  Scattering  –  Raman  effect  – Raman  spectrum  –  Blue  colour  of  the  sky  and  reddish  appearance  of  the  sun  at sunrise and sunset.

Wavefront and Huygen’s principle – Reflection, Total internal reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.

Interference  –  Young’s  double  slit  experiment  and  expression  for  fringe  width  – coherent source – interference of light. Formation of colours in thin films – analytical treatment – Newton’s rings.

Diffraction  –  differences  between  interference  and  diffraction  of  light  –  diffraction grating.

Polarisation  of  light  waves  –  polarisation  by  reflection  –  Brewster’s  law  double refraction  –  nicol  prism  –  uses  of  plane  polarised  light  and  polaroids  –  rotatory polarisation – polarimeter.

UNIT – VI: ATOMIC PHYSICS

Atomic structure – discovery of the electron – specific charge (Thomson’s method) and  charge  of   the  electron  (Millikan’s  oil  drop  method)   –  alpha  scattering   – Rutherford’s atom model.

Bohr’s  model  –  energy  quantisation  –  energy  and  wave  number  expression  – Hydrogen  spectrum  –  energy  level  diagrams  –  sodium  and  mercury  spectra  – excitation and ionization potentials. Sommerfeld’s  atom model.

X-rays – production, properties, detection, absorption, diffraction of X-rays – Laue’s experiment – Bragg’s law, Bragg’s X-ray spectrometer – X-ray spectra – continuous and characteristic X-ray spectrum – Mosley’s law and atomic number.

Masers and Lasers – spontaneous and stimulated emission – normal population and population inversion – Ruby laser, He-Ne laser – properties and applications of laser light – holography.

UNIT – VII: DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER – RELATIVITY

Photoelectric effect – Light waves and photons – Einstein’s photo – electric equation–  laws  of  photo  –  electric  emission  –  particle  nature  of  energy  –  photoelectric equation – work function – photo cells and their application.

Matter waves – wave mechanical concept of the atom – wave nature of particles – De-Broglie relation – De-Broglie wave length of an electron – electron microscope. Concept of space, mass, time  – Frame of references. Special theory of relativity  – Relativity of length, time and mass with velocity (E=mc^2).

UNIT – VIII: NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Nuclear  properties  –  nuclear  Radii,  masses,  binding  energy,  density,  charge  – isotopes, isobars and isotones – Nuclear mass defect – binding energy.   Stability of nuclei  –  Bain bridge mass spectrometer.

Nature of nuclear forces – Neutron – discovery – properties – artificial transmutation– particle accelerator.

Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their properties, α-decay and β-decay  and  Ƴ-decay  –  Radioactive  decay  law  –  half  life  –  mean  life.  Artificial radioactivity – radio isotopes – effects and uses Geiger – Muller counter.

Radio carbon dating – biological radiation hazards.

Nuclear fission – chain reaction – atom bomb – nuclear reactor – nuclear fusion – Hydrogen bomb – cosmic rays – elementary particles.

UNIT –IX: SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

Semiconductor   theory   –   energy   band   in   solids   –   difference   between   metals, insulators  and  semiconductors  based  on  band  theory  –  semiconductor  doping  – Intrinsic and Extrinsic semi conductors.

Formation  of  P-N  Junction  –  Barrier  potential  and  depletion  layer  –  P-N  Junction diode – Forward and reverse bias characteristics – diode as a rectifier – zener diode. Zener diode as a voltage regulator – LED.

Junction  transistors  –  characteristics  –  transistor  as  a  switch  –  transistor  as  an amplifier  –  transistor  biasing  –  RC,  LC  coupled  and  direct  coupling  in  amplifier  – feeback   amplifier   –positive   and   negative   feedback   –   advantages   of   negative feedback  amplifier  –  oscillator  condition  for  oscillations   –  LC  circuit  –  Colpitt oscillator.

Logic gates – NOT, OR, AND, EXOR using discret components – NAND and NORgates as universal gates – integrated circuits.

Laws and  theorems of Boolean’s algebra – operational amplifier – parameters – pin- out  configuration  –  Basic  applications.  Inverting  amplifier.  Non-inverting  amplifier  – summing and difference amplifiers.

Measuring Instruments – Cathode Ray oscilloscope – Principle – Functional units –uses. Multimeter – construction and uses.

UNIT – X: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Modes of propagation, ground wave – sky wave propagation.

Amplitude modulation, merits and demerits – applications – frequency modulation –advantages and applications – phase modulation. Antennas and directivity.

Radio transmission and reception – AM and FM – superheterodyne receiver. T.V. transmission and reception – scanning and synchronising.

Vidicon  (Camera  tube)  and  picture  tube  –  block  diagram  of  a  monochrome  TV transmitter and receiver circuits. Radar – principle – applications.

Digital communication – data transmission and reception – principles of fax, modem, Satellite communication – wire, cable and Fibre – optical communication.

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```(B)  CHEMISTRY
I - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY```

UNIT – I: ATOMIC STRUCTURE-II

Dual properties of electrons – de-Broglie relation – Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle –  Wave  nature  of  an  electron  –  Schrodinger  wave  equation  (only  equation,  no derivation) – Eigen values and Eigen function – significance only – molecular orbital method.  Application  to  Homo  diatomic  and  Hetero  diatomic  molecules  –  Metallic Bond – Hybridization of atomic orbital’s Hybridization involving s, p and d Orbital’s – Types of forces between molecules.

UNIT- II: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION-II

Review of periodic properties – Calculation of atomic radii – Calculation of ionic radii–  Method  of  determination  of  Ionisation  potential  –  Factors  affecting  ionisation potential – Method to determine the electron affinity – Factors affecting EA – Various scales on electro negativity values.

UNIT- III: p- BLOCK ELEMENTS – II

Group-13  General  trends  –  Potash  alum  –  Preparation,  Properties  and  uses  – Group-14 General trends  – Silicates – Types and structure – Silicones – Structure and uses – Extraction of lead – Group-15 General trends – Phosphorous – Allotropes and extraction – Compounds of phosphorous – Group-16 General trends – H2SO4 – Manufacture  and  properties  –  Group-17  General  characteristics.     Physical  and Chemical   properties   –   Isolation   of   fluorine   and   its   properties   –   Interhalogen compounds Group 18 Inert gases – Isolation, properties and uses.

UNIT- IV: d- BLOCK ELEMENTS

General  characteristics  of  d-block  elements  –  First  transition  series  –  Occurrence and principles of extraction – chromium, copper and zinc – Alloys – Second transition series – Occurrence and principles of extraction of silver – Third transition series – Compounds – K2Cr2O7, CuSO4.5H2O, AgNO3, Hg2Cl2, ZnCO3, Purple of cassius.

UNIT-V: f- BLOCK ELEMENTS

General   characteristics   of   f-block   elements   and   extraction   –   Comparison   of Lanthanides and Actinides – Uses of lanthanides and actinides.

UNIT-VI:  COORDINATION  COMPOUNDS  AND  BIO-COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

An  introduction  –  Terminology  in  coordination  chemistry  –  IUPAC  nomenclature  of mononuclear  coordination  compounds  –  Isomerism  in  coordination  compounds  – Structural   isomerism   –   Geometrical   isomerism   in   4-coordinate,   6-coordinate complexes  –  Theories  on  coordination  compounds  –  Werner’s  theory  (brief)  – Valence  Bond  theory  –  Crystal  field  theory  –  Uses  of  coordination  compounds  – Bio-coordination compounds. Haemoglobin and chlorophyll.

UNIT – VII: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Nuclear energy, nuclear fission and fusion – Radio carbon dating – Nuclear reaction in sun – Uses of radioactive isotopes.

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`II.PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY`

UNIT-VIII: SOLID STATE II

Types  of  packing  in  crystals  –  X-Ray  crystal  structure  –  Types  of  ionic  crystals  – Imperfections in solids – Properties of crystalline solids – Amorphous solid.

UNIT- IX:THERMODYNAMICS – II

Review of first law – Need for the second law of thermodynamics – Spontaneous and non spontaneous processes – Entropy – Gibb’s free energy – Free energy change and chemical equilibrium – Third law of thermodynamics.

UNIT-X: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM II

Applications of law of mass action – Le Chatlier’s principle.

UNIT-XI: CHEMICAL KINETICS –II

First order reaction and pseudo first order reaction – Experimental determination of first  order  reaction   –  method  of   determining  order  of   reaction   –   temperature dependence of rate constant – Simple and complex reactions.

UNIT-XII – SURFACE CHEMISTRY

Adsorption  – Catalysis  – Theory of  catalysis  –  Colloids –  Preparation  of  colloids  – Properties of colloids – Emulsions.

UNIT-XIII – ELECTROCHEMISTRY – I

Conductors,  insulators  and  semi  conductors  –  Theory  of  electrical  conductance  – Theory of strong electrolytes – Faraday’s laws of electrolysis – Specific resistance,specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductance – Variation of conductance with  dilution  –  Kohlraush’s  law  –  Ionic  product  of  water,  pH  and  pOH  –  Buffer solutions – Use of pH values.

UNIT-XIV – ELECTROCHEMISTRY – II

Cells  –  Electrodes  and  electrode  potentials  –  Construction  of  cell  and  EMF  – Corrosion and its preventions – commercial production of chemicals – Fuel cells.

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`III. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY`

UNIT-XV:  ISOMERISM IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Geometrical isomerism – Conformations of cyclic compounds – Optical isomerism – Optical  activity  –  Chirality  –  Compounds  containing  chiral  centres  –  D-L  and  R-S notation – Isomerism in benzene.

UNIT- XVI:  HYDROXY DERIVATIVES

Nomenclature   of   alcohols   –   Classification   of   alcohols   –   General   methods   of preparation  of  primary  alcohols  –  Properties  Methods  of  distinction  between  three classes of alcohols 1o,2o  and 3o  – Methods of preparation of dihydric alcohols(glycol)–  Properties  –  Uses  –  Methods  of  preparation  of  trihydric  alcohols  –  Properties  – Uses – Aromatic alcohols – Methods of preparation of benzyl alcohol – Properties – Uses – Phenols – Manufacture of phenols – Properties – Chemical properties – Uses of Phenols.

UNIT- XVII: ETHERS

Ethers – General methods of preparation of aliphatic ethers  – Properties – Uses – Aromatic ethers – Preparation of anisole – Reactions of anisole – Uses.

UNIT- XVIII: CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

Nomenclature  of  carbonyl  compounds  –  Comparison  of  aldehydes  and  ketones  – General  methods  of  preparation  of  aldehydes  –  Properties  –  Uses  –    Aromatic aldehydes – Preparation of benzaldehyde – Properties – Uses – Ketones – General Methods    of  preparation  of  aliphatic  ketones  (acetone)  –  Properties  –  Uses  – Aromatic ketones – Preparation of acetophenone – Properties – Uses – Preparation of benzophenone – Properties.

UNIT- XIX:  CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Nomenclature   –   Preparation   of   aliphatic   monocarboxylic   acids   –formic   acid   – Properties – Uses – Tests for carboxylic acid – Monohydroxy mono carboxylic acids–  Lactic  acid  –  Sources  –  Synthesis  of  lactic  acid  –  Aliphatic  dicarboxylic  acids  – Preparation of dicarboxylic acids – oxalic and succinic acids – Properties – Strengths of  carboxylic  acids  –  Aromatic  acids  –  Preparation  of  benzoic  acid  –  Properties  –Uses – Preparation of salicylic acid – Properties – Uses – Derivatives of carboxylic acids  –  Preparation  of  acid  chloride  –  acetyl  chloride  (CH3COCI)  –  Preparation  – Properties – Uses – Preparation of acetamide  – Properties – Preparation  of acetic anhydride – Properties – Preparation of esters – methyl acetate – Properties.

UNIT-XX – ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Aliphatic nitro compounds – Preparation of aliphatic nitroalkanes – Properties – Uses– Aromatic nitro compounds – Preparation – Properties – Uses – Distinction between aliphatic  and  aromatic  nitro  compounds  –  Amines  –  Aliphatic  amines  –  General methods  of  preparation  –  Properties  –  Distinction  between  1o,2o  and  3o  amines  – Aromatic amines – Synthesis of benzylamine – Properties – Aniline – Preparation – Properties  –  Uses  – Distinction  between  aliphatic  and  aromatic  amines  –  Aliphatic nitriles  –  Preparation  –  Properties  –  Uses  –  Diazonium  salts  –  Preparation  of benzene diazoniumchloride – Properties.

UNIT-XXI – BIOMOLECULES

Carbohydrates  –  Structural  elucidation  –  Disaccharides  and  polysaccharides  – Proteins – Amino acids – Structure of Proteins – Nucleic acids – Lipids.

UNIT- XXII :CHEMISTRY IN ACTION

Medicinal Chemistry – Drug abuse – Dyes – Classification and uses – Cosmetics – creams   perfumes,   talcum   powder   and   deodorants   –   Chemicals   in   food   – Preservatives  artificial  sweetening agents,  antioxidants  and  edible colours  –  Insect repellent  –  Pheromones  and  sex  attractants  –  Rocket  fuels  –  Types  of  polymers, preparation and uses.

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```(C)  BIOLOGY
I. BOTANY```

UNIT – I: TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS

Types of classifications – artificial – natural – phylogenetic. Biosystematics – bionomial   nomenclature   –   herbarium   and   its   uses.   Bentham   and   Hooker’s classification  of  plants  –  families  –  Malvaceae  –  Solanaceae  –  Euphorbiaceae  – Musaceae and their Economic importance.

UNIT – II: PLANT ANATOMY

Tissue and tissue systems – anatomy of monocot and dicot roots – anatomy of monocot and dicot stems – anatomy of dicot leaf.

UNIT – III: CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

Chromosomes –  structure  and  types  –  genes  and  genomes  –  linkage  and crossing  over  –  gene  mapping  –  recombination  of  chromosomes  –  mutation  – chromosomal aberrations – DNA as genetic material – structure of DNA – replication of DNA –  structure of RNA and its types.

UNIT – IV: BIOTECHNOLOGY

Recombinant  DNA  technology  –  transgenic  plants  and  microbes  –  plant tissue culture and its application – protoplasmic fusion – single cell protein.

UNIT – V: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Photosynthesis – significance – site of photosynthesis – photochemical and biosynthetic    phases    –    electron    transport    system    –    cyclic    and    non-cyclic photophosphorylation – C3 and C4 pathways  – photorespiration – factors affecting photosynthesis  –  mode  of  nutrition  –  autotrophic  –  heterotrophic  –  saprophytic  – parasitic  and  insectivorous  plants  –  chemosynthesis  –  respiration  –  mechanism  of glycolysis  –  Krebs  cycle  –  pentose  phosphate  pathway  –  anaerobic  respiration  – respiratory  quotient  –  compensation  point  –  fermentation.  Plant  growth  –  growth regulators  –  phytohormones  –  auxins  –  gibberellins  –  cytokinins  –  ethylene  and abscisic acid. Photoperiodism and vernalization.

UNIT – VI BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE

Food  production  –  breeding  experiments  –  improved  varities  and  role  of biofertilizers. Crop diseases and their control  – biopesticides – genetically modified food  – biowar  – biopiracy –  biopatent  –  sustained  agriculture and medicinal plants including   microbes.  Economic   importance   –   food   yielding   (rice)   –   oil   yielding (groundnut) – fibre yielding (cotton) and timber yielding (teak) plants

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` II. ZOOLOGY`

UNIT – I : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Nutrition : Introduction – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids – Vitamins – Minerals – Water – Balanced diet _ Calorie values (ICMR standards) – Obesity – Hyperglycemia– hypoglycaemia – Malnutritions.

Digestion : Enzyme and enzyme action – Brief account of following – Dental caries – Root  canal  therapy  –  Peptic  ulcer  –  Hernia  –  Appendicitis  –  Gall  bladder  stone  – Liver cirrhosis – Hepatitis.

Bones and  joints (Major  types)  :  Fractures  –  Dislocations –  Arthritis  –  Rickets  and osteomalacia – orthopaedics – Gout.

Muscles  :  Muscle  action  –  Muscle  tone  –  Rigor  mortis  –  Muscle  pull  (hernia)  – Isometric and aerobic exercises (Body building) – Myasthenia gravis.

Respiration : Process of pulmonary respiration – Inspiration – Expiration – Exchange of  gases  at  alveolar  level  –  Control  of  respiration  –  Pnuemonia  –  Pleurisy  – Tuberculosis – Bronchitis – Breathing exercises.

Circulation  –  Functioning  of  heart  –  Origin  and  conduction  of  heart  beat.  Artificial pacemaker  –  Coronary  blood  vessel  and  its  significance  –  Myocardial  infarction, Angina   pectoris   –   Angiogram,   angioplasty   and   coronary   bypass   surgery   – Atherosclerosis  – Heart attack  – Heart block – ECG and Echocardiograph  – Heart valves –   Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) – ICCU – Arterial and venous systems – Blood  pressure  –  pulse  rate  –  Heart  transplantation  Resuscitation  in  heart  attack (First Aid) – Blood components Function – Plasma – Corpuscles – Blood clotting – Anticoagulants – Thrombosis – Embolism – blood related diseases like polycythemia, Leukemia – Lymph fluid.

Physiological  –  Co-ordination  systems  –  Brain  –  Functioning  of  different  regions  – Memory – Sleep – Stroke – Alzhemier’s disease – Meningitis/Brain fever conditioned reflex – Electroencephalography – Right brain – Left brain concept – Spinal cord – Functioning – Reflex action – CSF – Chemical co-ordination – Pituitary (Hormones of Adenohypophysis and their regulations) – Thyroid, Parathyroidal hormones – Insulin and Glucagon – Hormones of Adrenal cortex and Medulla – Reproductive Hormones– Problems related to Secretion, Non secretion of Hormones.

Receptor  Organs  –  Eye  –  Focussing  Mechanism  &  photo  chemistry  of  retina  – Shortsightedness – Longsightedness – Optometry – Retinopathy – Cataract – Lens replacement – Nyctalopia – Eye infection – Conjunctivitis – Glaucuoma – Eye care – EAR – Hearing mechanism – Organ of corti – Hearing impairments and aids – Noise pollution  and  its  importance  –  SKIN  –  Melanin  –  functions  –  Effect  of  solar radiations/UV – Skin grafting – Dematitis – TONGUE – Gustatory reception.

Excretion   –   Ureotelism   –   Urea   Biosynthesis   (Ornithine   Cycle)   –   Nephron ultrafiltration,  tubular  reabsorption  and  tubular  secretion  –  Renal  failure  –  Dialysis Kidney stone formation – Kidney Transplantation – Diabetes.

Reproductive  system  –  Brief  account  of  spermatogenesis  –  Oogenesis  Menstrual cycle – Invitro fertilization – Birth control.

UNIT – II : MICROBIOLOGY

Introduction – History of Medical Microbiology – The influence of Pasteur Koch, and Lister  virology,  Structure,  Genetics,  Culture and  diseases  –  AIDS and  its  control – Bacteriology – Structure, Genetics and diseases – Protozoan microbiology – Disease oriented    –    Pathogenecity    of    Micro    organism    –    Anti    microbial    resistance Chemotherapy.

UNIT – III : IMMUNOLOGY

Innate  (Non-specific)  Immunity  –  Anatomical  barriers  –  Physiological  barriers  – Phagocytic barriers – Lymphoidal organs – Thymus – Bursa of Fabricius – Peripheral Lymphoid  Organs  –  Lymph  nodes  –  Spleen  –  Antibodies  –  Immunoglobulins  – Regions of polypeptide chain – Transplantation immunology – Classification of grafts– Genetic basis of organ transplants – Immune system disorder.

UNIT – IV : MODERN GENETICS

Introduction  –  Scope  –  Human  Genetics  karyotyping  Chromosome  gene  mapping, Recombinant DNA technology and segmenting. Genetic  Disease  –  Human  Genome  project  –  Cloning  –  Transgenic  organisms Genetically modified organisms (GMO) – Gene therapy – Bio informatics application– DNA sequencing and protein structure. Biological database.

UNIT – V : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Human population and explosion – Issue – Global warming Crisis –   Green House Effect  –  Ozone  layer  depletion  –   Waste  management  –  Biodiversity  conservation (Biosphere reserves) Governmental and Non Governmental organizations involved – Energy  crisis  and  Environmental  impact  –  Poverty  and  environment  Fresh  water crisis and management.

UNIT – VI: APPLIED BIOLOGY

Livestock  and  management  –  Dairy  –  Breeds  of  Cattle  –  Milch  breed  –  Draught breed – Dual purpose – Common disease and control – Exotic and cross breeds – Techniques adopted in cattle breeding.

Poultry  –  Farming  techniques  –  Breeds  –  Farming  methods  –  Poultry  diseases  – Economic value.

Pisciculture Fish farming – Edible fishes of Tamilnadu.

Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope – Sphygmomanometer – Heamocytometer – Urine   –   Sugar   analysis   –   ECG   –   ‘PQRST’   wave   –   CT   scan   –   Endoscopic (Laproscopic) techniques – Artificial pacemaker – Auto analyser.

UNIT – VII: THEORIES OF EVOLUTION

Lamarckism  –  Neolamarckism  –  Darwinism  –  NeoDarwinism/Modern  concept  of natural selection – Species concept – Origin of species and Isolating Mechanisms.

UNIT – VIII: AQUACULTURE

History- Prospects- Kinds- Pond structure- Bunds- Pond types- Location- Culture- Physics- Chemical factors- Food- Bionomics of cultivable fishes and fresh- water prawns- Induced breeding- Diseases parasites and control- Ornamental fishes- Culture- Feeding- Mari culture.

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`(D) GENERAL STUDIES (SSLC STANDARD) `

UNIT-I GENERAL SCIENCE:

Physics:    Nature    of    Universe-General    Scientific    laws-Inventions    and

discoveries-National   scientific   laboratories-Mechanics   and   properties   of matter-Physical  quantities,  standards  and  units-Force,  motion  and  energy- Magnetism, electricity and electronics -Heat, light and sound

Chemistry-Elements   and   Compounds-Acids,   bases   and   salts-Fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides

Botany-Main   Concepts   of   life   science-Classification   of   living   organism- Nutrition and dietetics-Respiration

Zoology-Blood    and    blood    circulation-Reproductive    system-Environment, ecology,  health  and  hygiene-Human  diseases  including  communicable  and non – communicable diseases –  prevention and remedies-Animals, plants and human life

UNIT-II. CURRENT EVENTS

History-Latest  diary  of  events-national  -National  symbols-Profile  of  States- Eminent persons & places in news-Sports & games-Books & authors -Awards & honors’-India and its neighbors

Political Science- Problems in conduct of public elections- Political parties and political system in India- Public awareness & General administration- Welfare oriented govt. schemes, their utility

Geography–Geographical landmarks- Economics- Current socio-economic problems Science-Latest inventions on science & technology

UNIT- III. GEOGRAPHY

Earth and Universe-Solar system-Monsoon, rainfall, weather & climate-Water resources    —  rivers  in  India-Soil,  minerals  &  natural  resources-Forest  & wildlife-Agricultural     pattern-Transport     including     surface     transport     & communication-Social geography – population-density and distribution-Natural calamities – Disaster Management.

UNIT – IV. HISTORY AND CULTURE OF INDIA AND TAMIL NADU

Indus valley civilization-Guptas, Delhi Sultans, Mughals and Marathas-Age of Vijayanagaram  and  the  bahmanis-South  Indian  history-Culture  and  Heritage of  Tamil  people-India  since  independence-Characteristics  of  Indian  culture- Unity  in  diversity  –race,  colour,  language,  custom-India-as  secular  state- Growth of rationalist, Dravidian movement in TN-Political parties and populist schemes

UNIT-V.  INDIAN POLITY

Constitution   of   India–Preamble   to   the   constitution-      Salient   features   of constitution-   Union,   state   and   territory-   Citizenship-rights   amend   duties- Fundamental  rights-      Fundamental  duties-      Human  rights  charter-    Union legislature – Parliament- State executive- State Legislature – assembly- Local government – panchayat raj – Tamil Nadu- Judiciary in India – Rule of law/Due process  of  law-Elections-  Official  language  and  Schedule-VIII-  Corruption  in public  life-  Anti-corruption  measures  –CVC,  lok-adalats,  Ombudsman,  CAG  – Right to information- Empowerment of women- Consumer protection forms.

UNIT-VI.  INDIAN ECONOMY

Nature of Indian economy- Five-year plan models-an assessment-Land reforms &   agriculture-Application   of   science   in   agriculture-Industrial   growth-Rural welfare oriented programmers-Social sector problems – population, education, health, employment, poverty-Economic trends in Tamil Nadu

UNIT-VII.  INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

National  renaissance-Emergence  of  national  leaders-Gandhi,  Nehru,  Tagore- Different  modes  of  agitations-Role  of  Tamil  Nadu  in  freedom  struggle  Rajaji, VOC, Periyar, Bharathiar & others.

UNIT-VIII.  APTITUDE & MENTAL ABILITY TESTS

Conversion  of  information  to  data-Collection,  compilation  and  presentation  of data   –   Tables,   graphs,   diagrams   -Analytical   interpretation   of   data       – Simplification-Percentage-Highest  Common  Factor      (HCF)-Lowest  Common Multiple   (LCM)-Ratio and Proportion-Simple interest-Compound interest-Area- Volume-Time   and   Work-Logical   Reasoning-Puzzles-Dice-Visual   Reasoning- Alpha numeric Reasoning-Number Series.

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