The Great Revolt of 1857

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The British historians call the revolt of 1857 as Military revolt

2. Indian historians describe the Revolt of 1857 as First war of Indian Independence

3. During the great revolt of 1857 the Governor General of India was Lord Canning

4. The peasants had to pay heavy revenue taxes

5. Resumption of rent free system was introduced by Lord Bentinck

6. General Services Enlistment Act was passed in 1856

7. The first sign of unrest appeared at Barrackpore

8. The Sepoys broke out into open revolt at Meerut

9. The wife of Nawab of Oudh was Begum Hazarat Mahal

10. After 1857 revolt the Governor General of India was designated as Viceroy of India

II. Match the following

1. Managal Pandey  Barrack pore
2. Bahadur Shah II  Delhi
3. Nana Sahib  Cawnpore
4. Begum HazaratMahal  Lucknow
5. Rani Lakshmi Bai  Central India
1. Rani Lakshmi Bai  Jhansi
2. Bahadur Shah II  Mughal Emperor
3. The Great Revolt  1857
4. Lucknow  Colin Campbell
5. Queen Victoria proclamation  Magna Carta

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What were the social and religious causes for the Great Revolt of 1857?

The social and religious causes for the Great Revolt of 1857

  • The abolition of sati and female infanticides.
  • Widow Remarriage was legalized.
  • The Hindu law of property was changed.
  • The British imposed taxes on the lands belonging to temples and mosques.

2. Name the important leaders and centres of the mutiny.

Leaders of the Revolt:-

Delhi  Bhadur Shah-II
Central India  Rani Laxmi Bai
Lucknow  Begum Hazarat Mahal
Kanpur  Tantia Tope, Nana Saheb

3. Write a note on the Revolt at Delhi.

The Revolt at Delhi

  • Sir Archdale Wilson, Nicholson and Sir John Lawrence who freed Delhi from the rebels.
  • The city was sacked and the people were massacred mercilessly.
  • Bahadur Shah II, was tried for treason and he was exiled to Rangoon.
  • Where he died at the age of eighty seven.

4. Mention the importance of Queen Victoria’s proclamation.

The importance of Queen Victoria’s proclamation

  • A Royal Durbar was held at Allahabad in November 1, 1858. The proclamation issued by Queen Victoria.
  • It was read by lord canning.
  • It is described as the “Magna Carta”.
  • It confirmed the earlier treaties.
  • It promised to pay due regard customs of India.
  • Granted general pardon to all offenders except the murder of the British subjects.
  • The revolt aroused national feelings and it served as a source of inspiration for freedom in 1947.

5. How did the British Cripple Indian trade?

British Cripple Indian trade

  • The British imposed heavy duties on imported goods in British
  • British goods were imported in India at nominal duty
  • The Indian weavers received very low wages
  • They destroyed cotton textile industries and Indian lost employment

6. What was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857?

The immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857

  • The greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles was the immediate cause for the mutiny.
  • Cartridges had to be bitten off before loading.
  • Believing that the fat of Cow and Pig had been used to grease these cartridges.
  • Both Hindus and Muslims refused to use him.
  • The cow is sacred to the Hindus and pig is detestable to the Muslims.

7. Why was not the revolt widespread?

Because of

  • Disunity among the Indians was the first and the foremost cause.
  • The educated Indians did not support the movement in general.
  • The rulers did not support the movement, remained neutral.
  • The rebellious soldiers were short of modern weapons

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. POLITICAL CAUSES FOR THE REVOLT OF 1857

[a] Who introduced Subsidiary Alliance?

Lord Wellesley.

[b] Name the policy introduced by Lord Dalhousie

Doctrine of Lapse.

[c] What was the order issued by the British against the Mughal emperor?

The British ordered the successors to give their ancestral palace and Red fort.

[d] Why did Nana Saheb develop a grudge against the British?

By stopping pension to Nana Sahib adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.

2. REVOLT AT CAWNPORE

[a] Who joined the rebels at Cawnpore and with whom?

Nana sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II joined the revolt at Cawnpore.

[b] What happened to the English?

Many Englishmen surrendered. English Men, Women and Children were massacred mercilessly.

[c] Who defeated Nana Saheb?

Sir Colin Campbell with able commander.

[d] When was Cawnpore brought under British control?

By the Middle of November 1857.

3. REVOLT AT CENTRAL INDIA

[a] Who led the revolt at Central India?

Rani Lakshmi Bai.

[b] Name the place captured by Rani Lakshmi Bai.

Gwalior.

[c] What was her end?

She was killed in the battle in June 1858.

[d] What did Tantia Tope do?

Tantia Tope escaped but he was captured and put to death.

V. Answer the following in a Paragraph:

1. What were the Administrative and Military causes of the Great Revolt of 1857?

Administrative Cause:-

  • The Indians disliked administration of the British.
  • The replacement of Persian language by English as the court language.
  • The judicial system of the British was costly.
  • The most affected part of British administration was revenue system.
  • The peasants had to pay heavy taxes.
  • The British excluded the Indians from all high civil and military jobs.

Military causes

  • A feeling of discontent developed among the Indian sepoys
  • There was no promotion for Indian soldiers were insulted very badly
  • General service Enlistment act (1856) ordering all recruits to be ready for service both within and outside India.
  • The greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles was the immediate cause for the mutiny. Cartridges had to be bitten off before loading.
  • Believing that the fat of Cow and Pig had been used to grease these cartridges.
  • Both Hindus and Muslims refused to use him.
  • The cow is sacred to the Hindus and pig is detestable to the Muslims.

2. Enumerate the causes for the failure of The Great Revolt of 1857.

Causes for the failure of the revolt:-

  • Disunity among the Indians.
  • The revolt was not widespread among the people.
  • A large number of rulers did not join the movement.
  • The rulers of the Indians states remained neutral.
  • The educated Indians did not support the movement in general.
  • The possessions of Telegraph and Postal proved very helpful to the British.
  • The rebellious soldiers were short of modern weapons.
  • The Indian leaders were no match to the British generals.
  • The revolt broke out prematurely.
  • The Revolutionaries had no common idea.
  • The British “Divide and Rule” prevented Indian rulers to join together for a common cause.

3. Mention the results of the Great Revolt of 1857.

Results of the Revolt:-

  • It put an end to the company’s rule in India in 1858.
  • The administration of India was directly taken over by the British crown.
  • Board of Control and the Court of Directors were abolished and the Secretary of State for India was created.
  • Full religious freedom was guaranteed to Indians.
  • Indians were also given assurance of high posts without any discrimination.
  • The Indian army was thoroughly re-organized.

The Queen Victoria’s proclamation

  • A Royal Durbar was held at Allahabad, in November 1, 1858. The proclamation issued by Queen Victoria.
  • It was read by lord canning
  • It is described as the “Magna Carta”.
  • It confirmed the earlier treaties.
  • It promised to pay due regard customs of India.
  • Granted general pardon to all offenders except the murder of the British subjects.
  • The revolt aroused national feelings and it served as a source of inspiration for freedom in 1947.

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