Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. South Indian Liberal Federation is otherwise known as the Justice party

2. Periyar transformed the Justice party into Dravidar Swarajya

3. The greatest social reformer of Tamil Nadu E.V. Ramasamy Naicker

4. Vaikam is a place in Kerala

5. C.N. Annadurai was affectionately called as Anna

6. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was founded by C.N. Annadurai

7. C.N. Annadurai was conferred Doctorate by Annamalai University

8. Due to Dr. Muthulakshmi’s good efforts the cancer institute was started at Adayar

9. All India women conference was organized at Pune

10. Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy started an orphanage known as Avvai Illam

11. Dr. S. Dharmambal started an agitation for the cause of Tamil teachers called Elavuvaram

12. MoovalurRamamirdham was born in 1883

II. Match the following:

1. Justice  English News paper
2. Vaikam Hero  E.V. Ramasamy Periyar
3. Devadasi system  Dr. Muthu Lakshmi Reddy
4. VeeraTamilannai  Dr. S. Dharmambal
5. Justice party  T.M.Nair

III. Answer in following in brief:

1. Write a brief note on the rule of the Justice party.

Note on the rule of the Justice party

  • In the Election of 1920, the justice party secured a majority and SubbrayaluReddiar formed the ministry.
  • In 1923 Justice Party T. M. Sivagnanam Pillai formed the ministry.
  • In the election of 1926, with the support of Swarajya Party, A. Subbrayalu form the ministry.
  • In 1934 Congress party refused again the justice party formed ministry.
  • In 1937 election the justice party failed never recovered from the defeat.

2. What are the aims of Self Respect Movement?

The aims of Self Respect Movement

  • It fought against Brahmin domination.
  • It fought to abolish traditionalism and superstitions.
  • It advocated women education, widow remarriage, intercaste marriages and opposed child marriage.

3. Why do we call Periyar as “Vaikam Hero”?

  • He joined the non-cooperation movement.
  • He led the famous Vaikam Sathya Graha in 1924, where the people of downtrodden community were prohibited to enter into the Temple.
  • The Travancore government relaxed such segregation and allowed the people to enter into the temple. Hence Periyar was given the title of “Vaikam Hero”.

4. Mention the services rendered by Annadurai as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.

  • He introduced the scheme of 1kg rice for Re.1.
  • He also introduced Tamil Language Development Scheme.
  • On the first day of Chittirai (4-4-1967) on Tamil New Year day, Anna changed name from “Madras” to “Tamizhaga Arasu” or “Tamizhagam”.
  • He announced “Satyamevajayavate” would appear as “Vaimaye Vellum”.

5. Narrate Dr. Muthu Lakshmi’s role in the agitation against Devadasi system

  • Dr. Muthu Lakshmi Reddy was not only interested in medicine but also in politics and social reforms.
  • She dedicated herself in removing the cruel practice Devadasi system from Tamil Nadu.
  • Gandhiji praised her against Devadasi system.
  • Appreciating her agitation against Devadasi system she was nominated to the Tamilnadu Legislative Council in 1929.
  • As a result the Justice party Government enacted a law abolishing Devadasi system.

6. What did Dr. S. Dharmambal do to the Tamil Teachers?

  • The Tamil teachers had no due recognition in the society.
  • They were not paid equal salary like other teachers.
  • She started an agitation called “ElavuVaram”.
  • As a result the Educational Minister announced equal pay to Tamil teachers like other teachers.

7. Write a note on the services rendered by Moovalur Ramamirdham for her community.

  • ”Moovalue Ramamirtham belonged to Isai Vellalar caste
  • Girls of this caste were sacrificed to temples to do service to God.
  • They were ill-treated and humiliated by the landlords and zamindars in the name of caste.
  • On seeing this she decided to flight for their emancipation.
  • She spoke all over the country and won the support of many leaders.
  • She joined the Indian National Party and organized the conference of Isai Vellalar at Mayiladudurai in 1925.
  • She was also one of the important person for the abolition of devadasi system

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption

1. THE JUSTICE PARTY

[a] Who established the Justice party?

T. M. Nair and Thiyagaraya Chetty.

[b] When did the Justice party come to power?

In 1920.

[c] When was it defeated?

In 1937.

[d] Write any two achievements of the Justice party.

The Justice Party government set right the imbalances in the representation of different communities and improved the status of Depresses Classes. In 1925 Andra University and in 1929 Annamalai University were opened.

2. SELF RESPECT MOVEMENT

[a] Who started the Self Respect Movement?

E. V. Ramasamy Periyar.

[b] Why did he start?

To spread and execute his ideas and policies.

[c] When was it started?

In 1925.

[d] Name the laws passed by the Government due to the constant struggle of Self – Respect Movement.

Widow Re-Marriage Act, Women’s Right to Property Act, Abolition of Devadasi Act.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on the formation and achievements of the Justice party.

The justice movement:

  • The Justice Party was officially known as South Indian Liberal Federation.
  • This party was established in 1916 by T. M. Nair and Thiyagaraja Chetty.
  • The Justice Party represented Non-Brahmin movement.
  • This party published “Dravidan” in Tamil, “Andhra Prakasika” in Telugu and “Justice” in English. Hence it came to be called as the “Justice Party”.

Achievements of the Justice Party:

  • The Justice Party improved the status of depressed classes.
  • The Communal G. O.’s of 1921 and 1922 provided reservation for Non-Brahmins.
  • For the benefit of all communities, College Committees were created.
  • In 1925 Andhra University and in 1929 Annamalai University were opened.
  • To regulate temple accounts, in 1926 the Hindu Religious Endownment Bill was passed.
  • The Women were granted the right to vote in 1921
  • Abolished Devadasi system.
  • The system of giving free pattas for housing sites to the poor.
  • Introduced mid-day meal schemes at thousand lights.
  • It gave encouragement to Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medical Education.

3. Dr. Muthu Lakshmi’s contribution to Tamil Society is beyond description – Prove statement.

Muthu Lakshmi’s contribution to Tamil Society

  • She dedicated herself in removing the cruel practice Devadasi system from Tamil Nadu.
  • Appreciating her agitation against Devadasi system she was nominated to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council in 1929.
  • The Cancer Institute at Adayar was started due to her good efforts.
  • In 1930, she organized All India Women Conference at Pune. She was the President of Indian Women Association from 1933 to 1947.
  • She also started AvvaiIllam an orphanage at Santhome in Madras.

3. “MoovalurRamamirdham is a freedom fighter and a Social Reformer” – Justify the statement.

  • ”MoovalurRamamirtham” belonged to Isai vellalar caste
  • Girls of this caste were sacrificed to temples to do service to God.
  • They were ill-treated and humiliated by the landlords and zamindars in the name of caste.
  • On seeing this she decided to fight for their emancipation.
  • She spoke all over the country and won the support of many leaders.
  • She joined the Indian National Party and organized the conference if Isai Vellalar at Mayiladudurai in 1925 and got moral support by Rajaji, Periyar and Thiru. Vi. Ka.
  • She inspired women to take part in the National movement on a large scale.
  • In her memory, “Moovalur Ramamirtham Ammal Ninaivu Marriage Assistance scheme”, a social welfare scheme to provide financial assistance to poor women.

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