Social and Religious Reform Movement in the 19th Century

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The pioneer of the reform movements was Raja Rammohan Roy

2. Lord William Bentinck passed an Act in 1829 to abolish Sati due to the efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy

3. Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi started the Arya Samaj

4. The headquarters of the Rama Krishna mission is at Belur

5. Vallalar’s devotional songs are compiled in a volume called Thiru Arutpa

6. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the Aligarh movement

7. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started a school at Ghazipur

8. A great socialist reformer from Kerala is Sri Narayana Guru

II. Match the following

1. Herald of New Age  Raja Rammohan Roy
2. Martin Luther of Hinduism  Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi
3. New India  Mrs. Annie Besant
4. Photo Voltic Lighting System  Ramakrishna Mission
5. Vallalar Ramalinga Adigal

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. Write a note on Prarthana Samaj

A note on Prarthana Samaj

  • Prarthana Samaj was founded in Bombay in 1867 by Dr. Atmaran Pandurang.
  • It advocated inter-dining, inter-caste marriage, widow re-marriage, downtrodden classes.
  • The samaj abolition of Purdha System and Child marriage.

2. What are the services rendered by the Arya Samaj?

The services rendered by the Arya Samaj

  • Swami Dayananda Sarawathi founded the Arya Samaj in 1875. His original name was Mul Shankar.
  • His motto was “Go back to Vedas”.
  • The Arya Samaj condemned animal sacrifice, idol worship, ritualism.
  • He started the “Suddhi Movement”.
  • The Arya Samaj opposed child marriage, Polygamy, Purdha system, Casteism and sati and advocated women education, intercaste marriage and inter-dining.
  • The Samaj started Dayananda Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools and colleges.

3. Mention the main principles of the Theosophical Society.

The main principles of the Theosophical Society

  • To develop the feeling of fraternity,
  • To study ancient religions, philosophy and science,
  • To find out the laws of Nature and development of divine power in man.

4. What are the teachings of Vallalar?

The teachings of Vallalar

  • One of the primary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is the personification of mercy and knowledge.
  • The path of compassion and mercy are the only path to God.

5. What was the aim of Outcastes Welfare Assocation? [Bahisikrit Hitkaraini Sabha]

The aim of Outcastes Welfare Association

  • In July 1924, Dr. Ambedkar founded the Bahiskrit Hitkaraini Sabha (Outcastes Welfare Association)
  • Aim of the Sabah was to uplift the downtrodden.
  • In 1927 he led the Mahad March near Bombay, to give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank.

6. Point out the impacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century.

The impacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century.

  • To abolish some of the evils like sati, child marriage.
  • It promoted education, encouraged widow remarriage, inter-caste marriages and inter-dining.
  • It instilled sprit of nationalism in the minds of Indians.
  • It made the people to be proud of their culture and glory.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. BRAHMO SAMAJ

[a] Who founded Brahmo Samaj?

Raja Ram Mohan Rai.

[b] What were the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy?

He learnt Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian. Later on he learnt English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages.

[c] Name the books written by Raja Rammohan Roy.

“Precepts of Jesus Christ”.

[d] What did Brahmo Samaj believe?

The Brahmo Samaj believed in a “Universal religion” based on the principle of one supreme God.

2. ARYA SAMAJ

[a] What was the original name of Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi?

Mul Shankar.

[b] Who was his guru?

Swami Virjanand.

[c] What was his motto?

“Go back to Vedas”.

[d] What did the Samaj advocate?

Women education, intercaste marriage and inter dining.

3. THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

[a] Who was the founder of the Theosophical Society?

Madame Blavatsky and an American Colonel Henry. S. Olcott in USA.

[b] Why was it founded?

To preach about God and Wisdom.

[c] Who was the President of the Society in 1893?

Mrs. Annie Besant.

[d] Where is the headquarters of this society located?

Adyar in Chennai.

4. RAMAKRISHNA MISSION

[a] Who was Ramakrishna Paramahamsa?

He was a religious reformer (or) He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.

[b] Who founded the Ramakrishna Mission?

Swami Vivekandanda.

[c] When and where was the Parliament of Religions held?

In 1893, Chicago in the USA.

[d] Who represented the Hindu religion at the Parliament of religions?

Swami Vivekananda.

5. ALIGARH MOVEMENT

[a] Name the first religious movements of the Muslims.

Aligarh Movement.

[b] What did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan strongly believe?

Hindu-Muslim Unity.

[c] What was his greatest achievement?

The establishment of the Mohammaden Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.

[d] Name the newspaper published by him.

Tahzil-ud-Akhlaq.

6. Dr. B.R. AMBEDHKAR

[a] Who is the messiah of dalits and downtrodden?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[b] Who was the first Law Minister of India?

Dr. B.R. Ambedhkar.

[c] How was he honoured by the Government of India?

Bharath Ratna in 1990.

[d] Why did he lead the Mahad March near Bombay?

To give the untouchables the right to draw water from the public tank against the Manusmriti publicly.

V. Answer in a paragraph:

1. Write a paragraph on Brahmo Samaj

Brahmo Samaj-1928:-

  • Raja Rammohan Roy founded “Atmiya Saba” (1815) which later developed into Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
  • The Brahmo Samaj believed in a “universal religion” based on one supreme god.
  • Samaj condemned idol worship, untouchability case distinctions, and the practice of sati.
  • It was because of Raja Rammohan Sati Prohibition Act, passed in 1829.
  • He also fought against polygamy child marriage and supported intercaste marriage and widow remarriage.
  • He encouraged the study of English language and various superstitions, blind-faiths and the like were removed from India.
  • After the death of Raja Rammohan Roy, the work of the Samaj was carried by Keshab Chandra Sen and Devendranath Tagore.

2. Explain the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission.

The activities of Ramkrishna Mission cover the following areas:

  • Educational work, Health care, cultural activities, rural upliftment, Tribal welfare, and Youth movement.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission has its own hospitals, maternity clinics, and mobile dispensaries. It also maintains training centres for nurses.
  • In educational activities it has its own university, colleges, and vocational training centres.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission has also involved in disaster relief operations during famine, epidemic, fire, flood, earthquake and cyclones.
  • The Ramakrishna Mission played an important role in the installation of Photovoltaic (PV) lighting system in the Sundarbans.

3. “Ramalinga Adigal played a prominent role in the social and religious reform movements” – Justify

  • St. Ramalinga led to unity and solidarity of the Tamils.
  • He condemned the inequalities based on birth and promoted universal love and brother-hood.
  • He founded Sathya Dharma Salai at Vandalur for feeding the poor.
  • St. Ramalinga had the view that love is the “Master key to spirituality”.
  • Vallalar showed his mercy on plants, insects, birds and animals. This is called “Jeeva Karunya”.
  • He opposed the superstitious beliefs and rituals.
  • He emphasized on “being vegetarian”.
  • One of the primary teachings of Vallalar is “Service to mankind is the path of Moksha”.
  • God is the personification of mercy and knowledge.
  • In 1870, he established “Sathya Gnana Sabai”.
  • His devotional songs are compiled in a volume called “Thiru Arutpa”.

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