FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN INDIA PHASE – II [GANDHIAN ERA .A.D. 1920 – .A.D. 1947

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. Gandhiji advocated a new technique in our freedom struggle Sathyagraha

2. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the ______ party Swaraj

3. The Indian Constitution was formally adopted on January 26, 1950

4. In 1932, the British Government announced a scheme known as Communal award

5. The British Viceroy responsible for involving Indians in the Second World War was Linlithgow

6. To form the interim Government Nehru sought the help of Jinnah

7. First and last Indian Governor General of India is Rajagopalachari

8. The task of unifying Indian states was undertaken by SardarVallabai Patel

9. First President of India is Dr. Rajendra Prasad

II. Match the following:

1. Sardar Vallabhai Patel  Bismarck of India
2. Pondicherry  French possession
3. Goa  Portuguese possession
4. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar  Drafting committee
5. Lord Mount Batten  First Governor General of free India
1. Motilal Nehru  Swarajya party
2. Chauri Chaura  Uttar Pradesh
3. Lion of Punjab  Lala Lajpat Rai
4. Communal Award  Ramsay Mac Donald
5. Frontier Gandhi  Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

III. Answer the following in brief:

1. What are the changes introduced by the Government of India Act of

1935?

This act

(1) Introduced provincial autonomy,

(2) Abolished diarchy in the provinces,

(3) Established Federal Government at the Centre,

(4) The establishment of a federal court

(5) The establishment of a Federal Reserve Bank.

2. What is the importance of the Lahore session of the Muslim League?

The importance of the Lahore session of the Muslim League

  • In March 1940, at the League session of the Muslim League, the demand for a separate nation of Pakistan was made.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah put forth the “Two Nation Theory” that is, two different Nations namely India and Pakistan.
  • A separate home-land comprised of the Muslims were in majority.

3. What was the resolution passed in the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929?

The Lahore Congress-1929

  • The Congress met at Lahore under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929.
  • It declared Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.
  • At midnight on 31, December 1929, the tri colour flag was unfurled amidst the Slogans Vande Mataram.
  • January 26, 1930, was celebrated as Independence day.
  • Now January 26, 1950 celebrated as Republic Day.

4. Write a short note on the Cabinet Mission.

The Cabinet Mission (1946)

  • In March 1946 the cabinet mission under Pethick Lawrence, A.V. Alexander and Sir Stafford Cripps visited India to transfer of power.
  • The committee recommended Federal Government.
  • Till the Constitution was ready an Interim Government be set up at the Centre.

5. Name the States comprised of Pakistan.

The States comprised of Pakistan

West Punjab, Sind, North West Frontier Province and east Bengal and Sylhet district of Assam.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

1. SIMON COMMISSION

[a] Why was Simon Commission appointed?

To enquire into the working of the Act of 1919 and to suggest further measures to improve Indian administration.

[b] Why was it an insult to the Indians?

All the members of this commission were English men. It did not have any Indian member. The fact that no Indian was included to review the conditions and plans for the future of their own country was on insult to the Indians.

[c] How was Simon Commission greeted?

Go Back Simon.

[d] Name the Indian leader who died during the Simon Commission agitation.

Lala Lajpat Rai.

2. THE AUGUST OFFER

[a] When was the August offer an announced?

In 1940.

[b] What was promised for India after Second World war?

Dominion Status for India, after the war.

[c] Why was the committee set up?

For framing the Indian Constitution.

[d] Who would be appointed in the war council of the Viceroy?

Indian.

3. THE MOUNT BATTEN PLAN

[a] Who became the Governor General of India in 1947?

Lord Mount Batten.

[b] Who was the last British Governor General?

Lord Mount Batten.

[c] What was Mount Batten Plan?

According to this plan India had to be divided into two independent countries namely Indian Union and the Pakistan Union. The Princely States were given the option to join remain independent.

[d] What was the reaction of the Congress and Muslim League?

 Both the Congress and the Muslim league accepted this plan.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Explain the stages of Non-co-operation Movement of 1920-22. Why was it suspended?

Non-Cooperation Movement 1920-1922

The movement was started in 1920. The movement was observed in three stages

First stage: Indians who received titles and honours from the British renounced the in protest

Second stage: Large scale hartals were conducted schools and colleges were boycotted

Third stage: The most important and final stage of the movement was nonpayment of tax

The Chauri-Chaura incident on February 5, 1922 a procession of 1000 peasants was organized.

The police fired at the peasants

The angry peasants attacked and burnt the police station killing 22 police men

Gandhiji was upset and suspended the Non co-operation movement immediately

2. Write a short note on Salt Sathyagraha.

Note on Salt Sathyagraha

  • Gandhi started civil dis-obedience movement in 1930
  • The British government levied tax on common salt it hit the poor hard
  • The civil disobedience movement was started on 12th March 1930.
  • Gandhiji and 78 chosen followers including Sarojini Naidu left Sabarmati ashram to Dandi to break the salt laws. It covered 400kms. This march is popularly known as Dandi March
  • The slogan vandematram echoed everywhere
  • Gandhiji broke the salt laws by preparing salt from sea
  • In Tamilnadu C.Rajagopalachari organized a march from Trichy to Vedaranyam to break the salt laws

3. What is the importance of Three Round Table Conference?

Importance of Three Round Table Conference 1930:-

  • The British could not suppress the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • To solve the political dead lock, the British called the First Round Table Conference at London in 1930.
  • It was not attended by the congress, It ended in failure.
  • An understanding was reached between Gandhi and Lord Irwin as Gandhi-Irwin Pact-1931

The Second Round Table Conference-1931

  • Held in London. As no decision could be reached, it ended in failure.
  • The Civil Disobedience Movement was once again revived.
  • The Communal Award and Poona pact of 1932 to provide separate electorates for the minorities.
  • Gandhiji protested against this and went on a fast unto death.

Third Round Table Conference-1932

  • Held in London.
  • It ended in failure without the participation of the congress leaders.

4 Write a paragraph on Quit India Movement.

Quit India Movement-1942

  • The failure of Cripps Mission brought about a change in Gandhi’s attitude.
  • He asked for the complete withdrawal of the British from India.
  • Congress leaders felt that the presence of English in India would naturally invite Japan to invade India. Therefore Indians demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British from India.
  • Gandhi’s memorable speech, “I am not going to be satisfied with anything of complete freedom. We shall do or die. We shall either free India or die in the attempt”.
  • On the very next day Gandhi, prominent leaders of the Congress were arrested.
  • After the war Atlee came to power in England. Atlee deputed a mission to find a solution for India’s problems.

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