FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN INDIA – PHASE – I [PREGANDHIAN ERA A.D. 1885 – A.D.1919]

I. Choose the correct answer:

1. The Unification of the country was brought by the British. Imperialism

2. The language of the educated Indians was English

3. The religious and social reformers prepared the ground for the rise of Nationalism

4. The policies of the moderates were described by the Extremists as Political mendicancy

5. Open split in the Congress occurred in the sessions held at Surat

6. The Minto – Morley reforms introduced Separate electorate for the Muslims

7. Home Rule League in Bombay was formed by Tilak

II. Match the following:

1. Iswar Chandra Vidhya Sagar  Religious and Social Reformer
2. Subramania Bharathi  Patriotic writer
3. Swadeshi  Of one’s own country
4. New India  Mrs. Annie Besant
5. Kesari  Bala Gangadhar Tilak

III. Answer the following:

1. How Indian press and literature did paved the way for the rise of national movement?

  • Newspapers like the Indian mirror, Bombay Samachar, the Amrit Bazaar Patrika, the Hindu, the Kesari, and Maratha echoed the public opinion.
  • The writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, Subramania Bharathi patriotic writers brought national awakening among the Indians.
  • Vernacular Press act of 1878, curbed the freedom of the press. It led to agitation and unrest among the people.

2. What were the aims of Indians National Congress?

The aims of Indians National Congress

  • More facilities for the spread of Education
  • Freedom of press,
  • Holding of Indian Civil Service (I.C.S) examination in India,
  • Indian Council at London should be abolished.

3. Name some of the important moderate leaders.

The important moderate leaders areSurendranath Banarjee, Dadabai Naoroji, Pheroze Sha Mehta, Gopala Krishna Gokhale, and M.G.Ranade were some of the important moderate leaders.

4. Write a note on the formation of the Muslim League.

The formation of the Muslim League

Activities of the Indian National Congress created fear in the minds of the Muslims.

In 1906 the all India Muslim League was formed under the leadership of Salimullah Khan.

The aim of the Muslim League was to protect the rights of the Muslims and to make a demand for a separate electorate.

5. Mention the importance of Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress in 1916.

Lucknow Pact-1916:-

The moderates and the extremists joined together.

The Congress and the Muslim co-operated with each other in order to achieve self-government.

It was at this session Jawaharlal Nehru met Gandhiji for the first time.

IV. Answer all the questions given under each Caption:

1. FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF NATIONAL MOVEMENT

[a] How did the National leaders inspire the people?

They inspired the people with the ideas of self-respect and self-confidence. They encouraged people to fight against the foreign rule.

[b] When was the Vernacular Press Act passed?

In 1878.

[c] What was the policy of the British?

“Divide and Rule”.

[d] How did the British consider the Indians?

As an inferior and uncivilized.

2. THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

[a] When was the Indian National Congress founded?

In 1885.

[b] On whose advice was it founded?

Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant.

[c] Where was the first session of the congress held? Who was the chair person?

Bombay, W.C. Bannerjee.

[d] Name some of the leaders who attended the first session of the Congress.

DadabaiNaroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Madan Mohan Malavya, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopala Krishna Gokale, Pheroze Shah Metha, G. Subramaniya Iyer.

3. EXTREMISTS

[a] Name the extremists leaders.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Arabind Ghose.

[b] What did Tilak declare?

“Swaraj is my Brith Right and I shall have it”.

[c] Name the festivals revived by Tilak.

Ganapthi & Shivaji.

[d] What was the desire of the militant nationalists?

The Militant nationalists desired to change not only the aim of the congress but also the means to attain it.

4. JALLIAN WALA BAGH TRAGEDY

[a] Who were the prominent leaders arrested?

Two prominent leaders of Punjab Dr. Satyapal and Dr. SaifuddinKitchlew were arrested on April 13, 1919.

[b] Where did the people gather?

More than 10, 000 people gathered in JalianWalaBagh at Amitsar to protest peacefully against the arrest of their leaders.

[c] Who was the British Military commander of Amritsar?

General Dyer.

[d] What did Rabindranath Tagore do?

Rabindranth Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against this incident.

V. Answer the following in a paragraph:

1. Write any five factors that promoted the rise of National Movement.

Factors leading to the rise of nationalist movement

British Imperialism

The British imperialism made the people of the whole of India think as one nation.

Contact with the European countries:-

  • India came into close contact with various European countries.
  • Indians came into contact with the ideas and culture of western countries.
  • Indians were motivated by the unification of Germany and Italy.

Modern methods of Transport and Communication:-

It greatly helped the Indian leaders to carry on their ideas to every nook and corner of the country. Gave a momentum of the nationalist movement in the country.

The Great Leaders of India

  • The Great Scholars, Raja Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda, Tilak, Nehru, Gandhi inspired the people with the ideas of self-respect and self confidence encouraged people to fight against foreign rule.
  • Newspapers like the Indian mirror, Bombay Samachar, the Amrit Bazaar Patrika, the Hindu, the Kesari and Maratha echoed the public opinion.
  • The writings of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, SubramaniaBharathi patriotic writers brought national awakening among the Indians.
  • Vernacular Press Act of 1878, curbed the freedom of the press. It led to agitation and unrest among the people.

3. Write a paragraph on Partition of Bengal.

Partition of Bengal-1905

  • In 1905 Lord Curzon made the Partition of Bengal. He divided Bengal into two parts- East Bengal and Assam on one side West Bengal and Bihar on the other side.
  • Lord Curzon made a statement that the partition was purely on administrative grounds.
  • Indians thought that it was to break the unity of the people
  • They called it as an introduction of the policy of “Divide and Rule”.
  • Partition was revoked in 1911.
  • It paved the way for the birth of the Swadeshi Movement, means of “One’s own country”.
  • It encouraged the progress of Indian industries and boycott of foreign goods.

Leave a Reply