Earth Surface – Changing face of Lithosphere

I. Choose it.

1.Oxidation process is better known as Rusting

2.Meanders are formed in the Valley course.

3.Beaches are features of waves.

4.Pedestal rock is also called as Mushroom rocks.

5.Barchan is related to Depositinal features.

II Fill in the Blanks:-

1. Weathering can also be termed as gradation.

2. Two caves approach one another are called arch.

3. The fan shaped alluvial feative formed by a river at its lower course called as delta.

4. The government of India banned the tanneries around Tajmahal.

5. The fine dust deposited by wind beyond the desert limit are called loess.

III Match it:-

1.Salt crystal growth — Holoclasty

2.Ox-bow lakes — Plain Course

3.Spits — Depositional features by waves

4.Moraines — Glacial depositions

5.Seifs — Wind depositions.

IV. Short answers:-

1. Write a brief note on weathering.

Weathering is a process of disintegration or decomposition of rocks

weathering is a complex interaction of physical, chemical and biological process that after the rocks of the crust.

Weathering can be classified into physical, chemical and biological weathering.

2. Name the Erosional landform produced by a river.

The gorges, canyons and v-shaped valleys are formed by a river.

River also produces waterfalls, meanders, river cliffs, valley course, delta, ox-bow lakes.

3. How are cirques formed?

The arm shaped, chair like depression formed by plucking of glacier is known as cirque.

4.What are longitudinal dunes?

They are long narrow ridges of sand and cover over a hundred miles, lying parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind.

5. Define the process of Rusting.

This is the process where the metals present in the rocks combine with O2 and water to form oxides. These oxides make the rock weak and it consequently crumbles from smaller rock particles. This process is known as rusting.

V Distinguish:-

1. Physical weathering and chemical weathering.

v Physical weathering is the process that causes the disintegration of rocks into small fragments without any chemical changes.

v The primary process in change physical weathering are abrasion.

v Chemical weather in refers to decomposition of rocks or many be defined as the breaking of rocks due to the alterations and hydrolysis are the most common occurrences.

2.Mountain and plain course of rivers.

v This course starts from a mountain range. Due to steep slope and high velocity of the river the vertical corrosion action is predominant.

v The work of a river is mainly deposition, building up of beds and forming extensive flood plains. The volume of water is greatly swelled by additional tributaries that join the main stream.

3.Valley and continental glacier.

v These Glaciers are formed on the mountains.

v They are also called as valley or alpine lacier.

v The Polar Regions are vastly covers of with ice.

v This extensive type of ice mass is called as continental glaciers.

4.Moraines and barchans.

v Moraines are made up of pieces of rocks, debris, boulders and day at the glacial valleys.

v Further they may be divided into Terminal moraines lateral moraines and medial moraines.

v These are crescent moon shaped dunes. They are morning dunes since they move steadily towards the prevailing wind directions.

5. Delta and loess.

v When the rivers reaches the sea the fine materials it has not yet dropped are deposited at its mouth, forming a fan chapped alluvial features called delta different types are bird foot delta arcuate delta, cuspate delta.

VI. Briefly.

1.Name the different types of weathering and explain any one is detail.

v Weathering can be defined as the decomposition of rocks. Weathering is a complex reaction

v of physical, chemical and biological process the alter the crust of earth.

v Weathering is classified into physical; chemical and biological weathering.

v Physical weathering is the process of causing disintegration of rocks into small fragments without chemical change.

v The physical weathering is done by the following process.

v Thermal stress

v Rocks are made up a combination of several minerals. The expansion and shrinking of temperature various from one another.

Frost weathering:-

v The mountainous areas experience frost condition and they have these types of weathering. Sometimes the cracks found on the rocks are called with water due to rain. It may freeze into ice during night due to very low temperature and melts during day time.

v The continuous freezing and melting of water cause the rocks to break into pieces. This type of weathering is said to be frost weathering.

Salt crystal growth.

v Salt crystallization, otherwise known as haloclassty, causes disintegration of rocks when saline in rock and evaporate, leaving salt crystals behind.

2. Name the different types of land forms associated with the three course of a river.

v This course starts from a mountain range. Due to steep slope and high velocity of the river, the vertical corrosionation is predominant. The gorges, canyons and V shaped valleys are formed.

v Due to unequal resistance of hard and soft rocks traversed by the rivers the out crop of band of hard rock may cause a jump or fall downstream leading to the formation of rapids. Similar falls of great dimension are also referred to as cataracts. When rivers plugs down in a sudden fall of some down in a sudden of some height, they are called waterfalls.

3. Write an essay on the Erosional process of waves.

v The most powerful agents of marine are coastal erosion are the waves. Along the coast waves are agents of erosion, transport and deposition.

v Generally a very steep rock face adjoining the coast forms a cliff.

v Prolonged wave attract on the base of a cliff excavated hole called caves.

v When 2 caves approach one another, arch formed further erosion by wave will ultimately to the total. Collapse will remain as a pillar of rock known as stack.

v It is further erosion, it then forms stumps which are only just visible above the sea level.

4. Write an essay on depositional landform of glaciers.

v Moraines are made up of pieces of rocks, debris, bounders and clay at the glacier valleys. Further they may be divided into terminal, lateral, medial moraines.

v They are deposits of day and debris and resembles like a half buried.

v Eg. The other depositional features are outwash plain and Eskers.

5. Describe about wind erosional features.

v Wind is a predominant agent of denudation in arid and semi-arid regions, because of scarce rainfall and sparse.

v The sand particles carried by the sand strike rocks pillar made up of hard and soft rock found at bottom, they are eroded faster than the hard rock found at the top.

v These are isolated residual hills rising abruptly from ground level. They are characterized by their very steep slopes and rounded tops.

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