PAPER- I AGRICULTURE (DEGREE STANDARD)
UNIT- I: IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE: Importance of Agriculture in Indian Economy and its sectoral relationship – Agricultural Development through five year plans in India and Tamil Nadu – Growth pattern of crops in India and Tamil Nadu in terms of area, production and productivity – Government Agricultural Policies – Agricultural development through NITI AYOG – Import and export – Role of NSC, FCI and PDS.
UNIT – II: FUNDAMENTALS OF CROP PRODUCTION : Factors of Production – Agricultural seasons of India and Tamil Nadu – Cropping patterns in India and Tamil Nadu – Package of practices of different crops – Agro-Climatic zones of India and Tamil Nadu and their features – Weather and Climate – Weather forecasting – Climate change and its impact – Minimal tillage practices – Stress mitigating technologies including microorganisms – Nanoparticles and their applications.
UNIT – III: NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT : Soil – Soil structure – Factors influencing soil structure – Physical and Chemical properties – Effect of nutrient availability and plant growth – Problem soils and their management – Soil survey – Its objectives and scope – Soil fertility and productivity – Dry farming – Rainfed agriculture – Conservation of soil and water – Watershed and waste land development. Land use pattern and planning – Size and distribution of holdings – Types and systems of farming – Water resources development and management – Command area development – Ground water Development and Conjunctive use – Water use efficiency – Quality of irrigation water – Its effect in soil and crops – Management of poor quality water for crop growth.
UNIT – IV: CROP MANAGEMENT & ALLIED AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES : Cropping systems and integrated farming – Recycling of agricultural waste – Organic manures, green manures, bio fertilizers – Balanced usage – Integrated nutrient management – Physiological disorders in crop plants and their management- Irrigation management of different crops Mushroom cultivation, bee keeping, silkworm rearing etc., Energy in Agricultural production – Sources – Solar, wind, animal, biomass and biogas – Mechanization in agriculture – Tractors & tillers – Agricultural implements and Machineries and their usage – livestock and poultry rearing.
UNIT – V: CROP IMPROVEMENT : Principles of breeding – Breeding methods in self , cross and vegetatively propogated crops – Modern tools in crop improvement – Heterosis breeding and Hybrid seed production technologies – Latest varieties of major crops in Tamil Nadu – Breeding for climate resilience varieties – Variety release procedures – Application of bio technology in agriculture – Tissue culture & its significance – Transgenic Plants. Plant Genetic Resources:Collection conservation and exchange-Crop varietal protection-PPV& FR authority and its role.
UNIT- VI: SEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY : Seeds – Importance of quality seeds in agriculture – Nucleus, breeder, foundation, certified and labelled seeds – Seed certification techniques and processing in Tamil Nadu – Seed testing – Seed testing laboratories-ISTA standards for seed testing – Seed village concept Seed Act – Seed coating and priming technologies – Seed enhancement technologies.
UNIT – VII: CROP PROTECTION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES : Importance of pest, disease, nematodes and weed management in agriculture – categories of pests, diseases, nematodes and weeds – Pest and disease surveillance and forecasting weather on pest and disease incidence – Symptoms of damages and control measures of pest, disease and nematodes of major crops in Tamil Nadu – Integrated pest, disease and nematode management in crop production – Pesticides and their use in IPM – Mode of action – Pattern – Plant protection equipments and their use – Plant quarantine. Storage pests, disease and nematodes and their management. Importance of biological control in pest, disease and nematode management. Weeds – Major weeds and their control.
UNIT – VIII: FARM BUSINESS AND FINANCE MANAGEMENT : Farm business management – Principles of farm business management – Types and systems of farms-Classical production functions – Cost concepts – Management of resources – Farm Planning and budgeting – Investment analysis – Risk and uncertainties in agriculture – Agricultural credit system in India – Multi credit delivery system – Role of nationalized banks, NABARD and Regional Rural Banks – Lead Bank Scheme – Service area approach – Scale of finance-Credit Worthiness-3 Rs,5Cs and 7Ps of credit- Crop Insurance – Kisan Credit Cards (KCC) – Agricultural Insurance Company.
UNIT – IX: AGRICULTURAL MARKETING AND MARKET INTELLIGENCE : Marketing – Agricultural marketing – Market structure – Marketing efficiency – Price Spread- Market Integration-Market Risk-Speculation and hedging – Market Institutions- Warehouses and rural godowns – Agmark-Cooperatives – Commodity Boards – Agri business management – Principles of Management-Entrepreneurship Development – Forms of Business organizations – Agricultural Price Policy – CACP-MSP – FRP- Procurement Price- Policies for agricultural development – Economic liberalization – WTO and its impact on agricultural export – Importance of Agriculture in Indian economy – Land size and distribution of holdings and land use pattern in Tamil Nadu – Agriculture under Five year Plans (FYPs) – Food Security – Public Distribution Systems (PDS) – Buffer Stock.
UNIT – X: AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION: PRINCIPLES AND METHODS : Extension methods for transfer of technology – AV aids-Communication models – Use of ICT in transfer of technology-Diffusion and adoption- Pre and post independence rural development initiatives: key features, strength and weakness of individual programmes – Programme planning and evaluation methods- Rural sociology – Key features of Indian rural system-Value system-Social change- Rural migration. Role of women in agriculture.
PAPER-II GENERAL STUDIES (DEGREE STANDARD)
UNIT – I: GENERAL SCIENCE :
Physics Universe-General Scientific laws-Scientific instruments-Inventions and discoveries- National scientific laboratories-Science glossary-Mechanics and properties of matter-Physical quantities, standards and units-Force, motion and energy-Electricity and Magnetism, Electronics and Communication -Heat, light and sound-Atomic and nuclear physics-Solid State Physics – Spectroscopy- Geophysics – Astronomy and space science.
Chemistry Elements and Compounds-Acids, bases and salts-Oxidation and reduction- Chemistry of ores and metals-Carbon, nitrogen and their compounds-Fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides-Biochemistry and biotechnology-Electrochemistry-Polymers and plastics.
Botany Main concepts of life science-The cell-basic unit of life-Classification of living organism-Nutrition and dietetics-Respiration-Excretion of metabolic waste-Bio- communication.
Zoology Blood and blood circulation-Endocrine system-Reproductive system-Genetics the science of heredity-Environment, ecology, health and hygiene, Bio- diversity and its conservation-Human diseases-Communicable diseases and non- communicable diseases- prevention and remedies- Alcoholism and drug abuse-Animals, plants and human life.
UNIT – II: CURRENT EVENTS :
History Latest diary of events – National symbols-Profile of States-Defence, national security and terrorism-World organizations-pacts and summits-Eminent persons & places in news- Sports & games-Books & authors -Awards & honours-Cultural panorama-Latest historical events – India and its neighbours – Latest terminology- Appointments-who is who?
Political Science 1. India’s foreign policy 2. Latest court verdicts – public opinion 3. Problems in conduct of public elections 4. Political parties and political system in India 5.Public awareness & general administration 6. Role of voluntary organizations & govt., 7.Welfare oriented govt. schemes, their utility
Geography Geographical landmarks-Policy on environment and ecology.
Economics Current socio-economic problems-New economic policy & govt. sector
Science Latest inventions on science & technology-Latest discoveries in Health Science- Mass media & communication.
UNIT – III: GEOGRAPHY :
Earth and Universe – Solar system-Atmosphere hydrosphere, lithosphere – Monsoon, rainfall, weather and climate – Water resources – Rivers in India-Soil, minerals & natural resources – Natural vegetation – Forest & wildlife-Agricultural pattern, livestock & fisheries -Transport including Surface transport & communication – Social geography – population -density and distribution-Natural calamities – disaster management-Climate change – Impact and consequences – Mitigation measures – Pollution Control.
UNIT – IV: HISTORY AND CULTURE OF INDIA :
Pre-historic events -Indus valley civilization-Vedic, Aryan and Sangam age-Maurya dynasty- Buddhism and Jainism-Guptas, Delhi Sultans, Mughals and Marathas-Age of Vijayanagaram and the Bahmanis-South Indian history – Culture and Heritage of Tamil people-Advent of European invasion-Expansion and consolidation of British rule – Effect of British rule on socio- economic factors-Social reforms and religious movements – India since independence- Characteristics of Indian culture-Unity in diversity – race, colour, language, custom-India-as secular state-Organizations for fine arts, dance, drama, music-Growth of rationalist, Dravidian movement in TN-Political parties and populist schemes- Prominent personalities in the various spheres – Arts, Science, literature and Philosophy – Mother Teresa, Swami Vivekananda, Pandit Ravishankar, M.S.Subbulakshmi, Rukmani Arundel and J.Krishnamoorthy etc.
UNIT – V: INDIAN POLITY :
Constitution of India – Preamble to the constitution- Salient features of constitution- Union, State and territory- Citizenship-Rights and duties- Fundamental rights- Fundamental duties- Human rights charter- Union legislature – Parliament- State executive- State Legislature – assembly- Status of Jammu & Kashmir- Local government – panchayat raj – Tamil Nadu- Judiciary in India – Rule of law/Due process of law- Indian federalism – center – state relations-. Emergency provisions- Civil services in India- Administrative challenges in a welfare state- Complexities of district administration- Elections – Election Commission Union and State. Official language and Schedule-VIII- Amendments to constitution- Schedules to constitution-. Administrative reforms & tribunals- Corruption in public life- Anti-corruption measures – Central Vigilance Commission, lok-adalats, Ombudsman, – Comptroller and Auditor General of India- Right to information – Central and State Commission- Empowerment of women- Voluntary organizations and public grievances redressal- Consumer protection forums.
UNIT – VI: INDIAN ECONOMY :
Nature of Indian economy-Need for economic planning-Five-year plan models-an assessment-Land reforms & agriculture-Application of science in agriculture Industrial growth-Capital formation and investment-Role of public sector & disinvestment-Development of infrastructure- National income- Public finance & fiscal policy- Price policy & public distribution- Banking, money & monetary policy- Role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)- WTO-globalization & privatization- Rural welfare oriented programmes- Social sector problems – population, education, health, employment, poverty-HRD – sustainable economic growth- Economic trends in Tamil Nadu -Energy – Different sources and development- Finance Commission -Planning Commission- National Development Council.
UNIT – VII: INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT :
National renaissance-Early uprising against British rule-1857 Revolt- Indian National Congress-Emergence of national leaders-Gandhi, Nehru, Tagore, Nethaji -Growth of militant movements -Different modes of agitations-Era of different Acts & Pacts-World war & final phase struggle-Communalism led to partition-Role of Tamil Nadu in freedom struggle – Rajaji, VOC, Periyar, Bharathiar & Others-Birth of political parties /political system in India since independence.
UNIT – VIII: APTITUDE AND MENTAL ABILITY TESTS :
Conversion of information to data-Collection, compilation and presentation of data – Tables, graphs, diagrams-Parametric representation of data-Analytical interpretation of data – Simplification-Percentage-Highest Common Factor (HCF)-Lowest Common Multiple (LCM)- Ratio and Proportion-Simple interest-Compound interest-Area-Volume-Time and Work- Behavioural ability -Basic terms, Communications in information technology-Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)- Decision making and problem solving- Logical Reasoning-Puzzles-Dice-Visual Reasoning-Alpha numeric Reasoning-Number Series-Logical Number/Alphabetical / Diagrammatic Sequences.