I Choose the correct answer.
1. The Vijayanagar Empire was founded in the year_____________ .
a) 1337A.D. b)1336A.D. c)1338A.D.
2. The brothers Harihara and Bukka served under the Hoysala King _________
a) Vira Ballala-lll b)Narasimhan-ll c)Billiama-VI
3. The most famous king of the Vijayanagar Empire was __________ .
a) Harihara b) Bukka c) Krishnadeva Raya
4. The Muslim kingdom that rose to prominence in the Deccan in 1347 A.D. was the——–
a) Slave b) Vijayanagar c) Bahmani
5. Muhammad Gawan was the Regent of ___________.
a) Muhammad Shah-Ill b) Hasan Gangu c) Ahmad Shah
II Fill in the blanks.
1. A group of eight scholars called Ashtadigagaias adorned the court of Krishnadeva Raya.
2. The Vijayanagar Empire reached its zenith of glory during the period of Krishnadeva Raya.
3. Ramaraya was defeated and killed in the Battle of Talaikotta
4. The Bahmani Kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu Bahmini.
5. The Bahmani Sultans encouraged Arabic and Persian learning.
III Match the following.
1. Vijayanagar – Southern bank of Tungabhadra
2. Battle of Talikota – 1565A.D.
3. Krishnadeva Raya – Ushaparinayam
4. Juma Masjid – Gulbarga
5. Golgumbaz – Bijapur
IV Answer the following questions briefly.
1. When was the Vijayanagar kingdom founded and by whom?
Answer: Harihara and Bukka served under the Hoysala King Vira Ballala III. He founded the city of Vijayanagar on the southern banks of Tungabhadra in 1336 A.D.
2. Who were the important rulers of the Vijayanagar Empire?
The important rulers of Vijayanagar Empire were
· Harihara-II, Devaraya-I,
· Krishnadeva Raya.
3. Write a short note on the Battle of Talikota.
· The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were weak.
· During the rule of Ramaraya, the combined forces of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar declared war on Vijayanagar. In the battle of Talikota in 1565 A.D.
· Ramaraya was defeated. He and his people were mercilessly killed.
· Vijayanagar was plundered and left in ruins.
4.When and by whom was the Bahmani kingdom founded?
· The founder of this dynasty was Hasan Gangu Bahmani.
v He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri. He established the independent Bahmani kingdom in 1347 A.D.
5.Name the five Muslim kingdoms that arose in Deccan at the end of Bahmani rule.
v The five Muslim Kingdoms Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Berar, Golconda and Bidar.
Answer in detail.
1. Discuss in detail about the glories of the Vijayanagar Empire.
Answer: The Glories of the Vijayanagar Empire
Ø The Vijayanagar rulers had a well organized administrative system.
Ø The king was the fountain head of all powers in the state.
Ø There was a Council of Ministers to assist the King in the work of administration.
Ø The Empire was divided into six Provinces.
Ø Each Province was under a Governor called Naik.
Ø The Provinces were divided into districts which were further divided into smaller units namely Villages.
Ø The Village Assembly carried on the administration of the villages through its hereditary officers like accountants, the weightsmen, watchmen and officers incharge of forced labour.
Ø The Central administration maintained contact with the villages through an officer called Mahanayakacharya.
Ø The army consisted of the infantry, cavalry and elephantry. The commander in-chief was in charge of the army.
Ø Land revenue was the main source of income.
Ø The land was carefully surveyed and taxes were collected based on the fertility of the soil.
Ø Great attention was paid to agriculture and the construction of dams and canals.
Ø The king was the supreme judge.
Ø The civil cases were decided on the basis of Hindu Law. Severe punishments were inflicted on the guilty.
Ø Fines were collected from those who violated the law.
Position of Women
Ø Women occupied a high position and took an active part in political, social and literary life of the empire.
Ø They were educated and trained in wrestling, in the use of various weapons of offence and defence, in music and fine arts.
Ø Some of them received education of high order.
Ø Nuniz writes that the kings had women astrologers, clerks, accountants, guards and wrestlers.
Ø We get a clear picture of the life of the Vijayanagar people from the writings of the foreign travellers.
Ø The society was well organized.
Ø Child marriage, polygamy and sati were prevalent.
Ø He kings allowed freedom of religion.
Ø The empire of Vijayanagar was very rich and prosperous. The agricultural production was increased by their irrigational policies.
Ø Numerous industries such as Textiles, mining, metallurgy and perfumery existed.
Ø They had commercial relations with the islands in the Indian Ocean, the Malay Archipelago, Burma, China, Arabia, Persia, South Africa, Abyssinia and Portugal.
Ø The chief articles exported were spices, cereals, cotton, silk, opium, indigo, sea pearls, saffron, ginger, sugar, coconuts, etc. The articles imported were horses, elephants, copper, coal, mercury, China silk and velvets.
2. Give an account of the political history of the Bahmani Kingdom.
Answer: The founder of this dynasty was Hasan Gangu Bahmani.
v He was a Turkish officer of Devagiri.
v He established the independent Bahmani kingdom in 1347 A.D. He captured the entire territories from Mahur in north-east to Telangana in the south.
v He defeated the Hindu ruler of Warangal and annexed Kolhapur, Goa, Mandu and Malwa.
v Thus his kingdom stretched from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal and included the whole of Deccan upto the river Krishna with its capital at Gulbarga.
Muhammad Shah-I (1358- 1377.A.D.)
v The next ruler was an able general and administrator. He defeated Bukka-I the ruler of
Vijayanagar and Kapaya Nayaks of Warangal.
Muhammad Shah – II (1378- 1397.A.D.)
v He was peace loving and hence he developed friendly relations with his neighbours.
v He built many mosques, Madarasas (a place of learning) and hospitals.
v On the death of Muhammad Shah-ll, Feroz Shah Bahmani (1397-1422 A.D.) became the ruler.
v He was a great general.
v He defeated Deva Raya I, the Vijayanagar ruler.
v He recruited a number of Hindus in his services.
v Towards the end of his rule, he lost the northern and southern provinces of his kingdom to Vijayanagar.
Ahmad Shah (1422-1435 A.D.)
v Succeeded Feroz Shah Bahmani.
v He was a cruel and merciless ruler.
v He conquered the kingdom of Warangal and changed his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
v He died in 1435A.D.
Muhammad Shah-Ill (1463- 1482 A.D.)
v Was another notable Bahmani ruler.
v He became the Sultan at the age of nine in 1463A.D.
v Muhammad Gawan became the regent of the infant ruler.
v Under his able guidance the Bahmani kingdom became very powerful.
v Muhammad Gawan defeated the rulers of Konkan, Sangameshwar, Orissa and Vijayanagar.